TECHNICAL PAPER # 71
UNDERSTANDING SHEEP PRODUCTION
Claudia S. Ingham
Loren and Joanna Sadler
Bruce I. Sanborn, Ph.D.
1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500
Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
703/276-1800 * Fax:
Understanding Sheep Production
1990, Volunteers in Technical Assistance
This paper is one of a series published by Volunteers in
Assistance to provide an introduction to specific
technologies of interest to people in developing
papers are intended to be used as guidelines to help people
technologies that are suitable to their situations.
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intended to provide construction or implementation
are urged to contact VITA or a similar organization for
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invaluable perspective, as a volunteer, to the compilation
technical reviews, conversations with contributing writers,
editing, and in a variety of other ways.
The author of this paper, VITA Volunteer animal scientist
Ingham, specializes in the care of horses and small stock in
Oregon. Loren Sadler
is an agricultural engineer who has been a
VITA Volunteer for many years.
He is retired, and with his wife
Joanna runs a small farm in Pennsylvania.
VITA Volunteers Bruce
Sanborn, a chemical engineer, and Paul Abrahams, a soil
have a special interest in raising sheep.
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working on technical problems in developing countries.
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UNDERSTANDING SHEEP PRODUCTION
VITA Volunteer Claudia S. Ingham
The sheep was one of the earliest animal species to be
with evidence that they were kept and not hunted as early as
10,700 years ago in the gorge of the Greater Zab River in
Iraq. Wool has been
found in the remains of 20,000-year old
villages in Switzerland (Blakely and Bade, 1986).
Sheep are in fact
well-suited for use by people because they can digest
portions of plants.
Bacteria and fungi in the gut of sheep allow
them to use feed resources that are of little or no direct
sources. In this way sheep can
be raised on marginal
lands or make use of crop by-products while producing meat,
wool, hides, and manure.
Many breeds of sheep, particularly those that are native to
desert regions of the world, use water very efficiently and
for several days without drinking.
They can graze far from watering
holes and place less stress upon soil and vegetation near
arid regions or those experiencing desertification, raising
would help alleviate erosion and health problems common to
where animal and human density is too high to be supported
Drawing on the genetic resources of the world's many sheep
and using cross-breeding to achieve a desired combination of
can bring great benefits to people.
Whether on small plots in wet
tropics or on ranges of many hectares in drier, more varied
climates, sheep can be used to alleviate food crises or
products for trade or barter.
2. SHEEP BREEDS AND
Among the hundreds of breeds of sheep, many produce wool
easily be used by the people who raise them.
Moreover, wool is
easily stored and transported.
Throughout North Africa and Asia
sheep are raised for their coarse, durable wool
that is used to make carpets, tent panels, and other heavy
This is in sharp contrast to the United States where only 7
of the wool consumed is carpet wool (Ensminger and Parker,
The Awassi is a breed commonly found in the Middle East
are raised as dual- or triple-purpose animals providing milk
meat in addition to fiber.
Throughout the world finer grades of wool are used in
breeds of sheep that grow it are very different from those
grow coarse wool.
Fine wool breeds in the Americas trace their
ancestry to the Spanish Merino.
Sheep of this breed were first
taken to the Americas by European explorers.
was developed from European breeding stock and is common in
American West. Many
other breeds produce fine wool of high quality
while thriving in diverse environmental conditions.
The Karakul, originally from what is now the Southeastern
Republics and Iran, is raised for its pelt.
Young animals (lambs)
are generally slaughtered at a few weeks of age when the
soft and pliable.
Many fat-tailed sheep thrive in desert regions of
Africa and Asia.
Although belonging to the same species as the
breeds mentioned previously, they have a broad base to the
that allows them to store more fat than other breeds.
store allows the animals to survive harsh conditions; they
for long periods of time without replenishing their body
Breeds commonly used in meat production are cross-bred to
advantage of a variety of genetic traits.
The Suffolk is popular in
the United States because it is a tall, large-framed
size provides the kind of lean carcass desired by
would not be the ideal meat breed in a country where the fat
content of the carcass is of great value.
Even where the market
demands large, lean carcasses, Suffolks are cross-bred for
traits. They are not
known for their mothering ability and so may
be cross-bred to ensure that lamb survival rates are as high
flocks often use a cross-bred Dorset ram (adult
male) because they have sturdier legs and will be able to
more ewes (females) in a lifetime.
The Hampshire is another popular meat breed in the United
that also yields a coarse to medium wool.
Its dual purpose and
adaptability to wet climates are assets where such traits are
desirable. It is
generally raised in farm flocks and not on range.
The Finnsheep has found popularity in some breeding
including those in Third-World countries.
Though not a very hardy
sheep due to its extremely fine bones it is prolific; ewes
lambs at a time and are good mothers.
These positive reproductive
characteristics have made it popular in cross-breeding
Such positive traits must be considered with regard to the
system and resources available.
If these sheep were to be
raised in an area where inadequate feed was available for
ewes, then the death loss due to inadequate milk supply
warrant the investment in the Finn ewes.
Throughout the Third World there are many breeds of sheep appropriate
to the needs of family or commercial producers.
It is estimated
that there are 300 million sheep in Third-World countries
1985); this is 30 percent of the world's sheep
on this vast resource it is possible to choose breeds best
to the environmental conditions of an area as well as the
needs of the people raising the animals.
Cross-breeding is one of
the most effective tools we have for improving or altering
application must take into account many variables
including available resources and any diseases endemic
occurring) to an area.
The prudent use of cross-breeding can allow
the shepherd to combine the traits most desirable to a
3. RESOURCES FOR
Fencing of Pasture and Range
The area intended for raising sheep should be evaluated
first animal is purchased.
One might decide to buy one pregnant
ewe, in which case a small pen would be sufficient if feed
is to be
brought to the animal.
A flock requires a large pasture or range.
If the sheep are to be confined, not herded by a shepherd,
must be adequate to keep the animals within an area.
Less labor is
required for daily herding with a fenced range or pasture.
costs of materials and labor to construct the fencing are
costs of repairs and availability of fencing
material in the future (over many years) should also be
Fences can be built from a variety of materials.
local material should be used as this will make the fence
affordable and any fence repair can be done easily because
are readily available.
Wood panel fencing is ideal for sheep
although it is usually the most costly type of fencing.
and rolled wire are commonly used.
In a pasture where lambs will be
kept, the strands or boards will need to be close together
the lambs do not escape.
Mesh fencing is commonly used for young
lamb pasture. The
mesh should be small enough that the lambs do not
push their heads through and get stuck.
A mesh of 15 cm is generally
better than a larger size mesh (Ensminger and Parker, 1986).
The lowest strand or board in the fence should be no more
cm from the ground, to ensure that sheep neither push the
and escape, nor--worse--become entangled and injured.
A fence 120
cm in height is usually tall enough to maintain a
flock. The height
depends on the breed to be raised.
Large aggressive rams may need
to be kept behind a more sturdy fence, perhaps of wooden
Securely planted posts and well-built gates are essential to
fencing. The width
of openings will depend on how many animals are
to be herded through them and what, if any, machinery will
pass through gates.
Fencing is not always necessary for sheep production.
Western United States many flocks are maintained on open
are never confined until put in pens at a finishing feedlot
Nomadic peoples herd sheep throughout Northern
Africa and Asia without fencing.
Sheep herded this way have a
strong flocking instinct, which makes a migratory existence
for the herder.
Their tendency to stay near other sheep,
particularly when confronted by danger or at night,
survival rate of animals where predators or harsh climate
Nomadic shepherding requires knowledgeable herders and great
adaptability on the part of the sheep and their
44 percent of the world's sheep are kept in this fashion
1985) it is not likely that a new sheep program would
an extensive production system.
A possible exception would be where
groups of nomads already herding camels, cattle, or goats
add sheep to their herds.
This might be done where cattle are
inappropriate due to drought conditions or where a new
exists for the sheep or their wool or milk.
Quality of the Feed Resource
The quality of forage and seasonality of plant growth should
determined when selecting the pasture or range on which the
will be kept. The
species of plants, rainfall variation, and soil
type will all affect the nutritional composition of the
Although one species may reach its peak in protein content
spring, others may be just starting to grow then.
is of highest digestibility just prior to flowering or the
of reproduction. All
these factors must be considered in order
to maximize production from a pasture resource.
Although chemical analysis is the most accurate way to
nutrient composition of plants, experienced animal
herders can make assessments by inspection.
require familiarity with the grasses, legumes, or
brush. A grass
that is green and lush-looking may nevertheless not be
by sheep for a variety of reasons.
Some plants produce toxins and
are not palatable to sheep.
In some cases the water content may be
so high that little nutritional value is realized.
Determining how many sheep can be fed on a given amount of
also depends on the breed of sheep and the reproductive
the flock. In areas
where plant growth is constant throughout the
year and where day length varies little, sheep mate
year as well. It is
up to the manager to decide when lambs should
be born to best match the resources available.
Where there is a
market incentive to produce lambs "off season" the
cost of supplemental
feed may be warranted.
In some locales supplemental feeding
will always be necessary.
This may include vitamins and minerals or
energy and protein supplements depending upon the flock's
Knowing the quality of the feed resource, the herd's
and the timing of availability will go a long way toward
the goals of the producer.
The willingness of the sheep to eat
particular feeds is not always predictable.
Although not known to
be fussy eaters, sheep do have preferences.
They will eat weeds and
brush but they prefer grasses and legumes.
Such factors need to be
included, whenever possible, when assessing the carrying
of the land and the impact of the sheep on vegetation.
Life-Cycle Nutritional Requirements
Ewes and rams require the least energy, protein, vitamins,
minerals per unit of body weight.
For the ewes, these requirements,
amounting to 2.5 to 3 kg equivalent in dry forage per day
animal, increase during breeding and during pregnancy and
Young lambs have high nutritional requirements, particularly
of protein, for growth.
Most managers recommend that the nutritional level of ewes
increased just before breeding.
This can be done in several ways.
Ewes may be placed on superior pasture two to three weeks before
introducing rams to the herd.
In many places ewes are grazed on
crop stubble so that they may make use of the residue.
available, grain can be fed to condition the ewes.
The last method
is the least desirable.
First, it is likely the most costly alternative;
second, it is difficult to gauge how much grain each ewe
will consume and ewes are likely to become too fat.
The aim of
flushing, as the period of conditioning is known, is to
the ovulation rate of the ewes.
Although the mechanisms are not
fully understood, this is a generally accepted
practice. In order
for flushing to be successful it must be done 10 to 20 days
to introducing rams.
If it is begun any sooner the advantage of
increased ovulation rate is not realized.
Excessively fat ewes
produce fewer lambs, in fact.
Rams should also be conditioned, by
feeding an energy and protein supplement approximately one
prior to breeding.
Gestation in sheep takes 144 to 155 days.
During the first two-thirds
of this period, the requirements of ewes do not increase
must have adequate feed and water but this
requirement is only slightly above that of maintenance.
last third of the period of gestation, when most of the
occurs in the fetuses, the ewes require 1 1/2 times the feed
maintenance. It is
important that grain or a crop by-product be fed
at this time if the pasture resource is not adequate.
The number of
lambs the ewe is carrying and climatic stress will also
nutritional needs of the ewe.
Lambs require little care, but up to 20 percent of newborn
may die if no attention at all is given.
Disinfect the umbilical
cords of newborns in iodine solution to prevent
infection. One good
method of preventing losses of new lambs is to put the
the lambs in a small pen (1.5 m square) for two days after
and frequently verify that the lambs are nursing.
If they are noisy
and have cold mouths they are not nursing and will die.
of the mother may need to be checked to make sure they are
clogged and the lamb may need to have its mouth placed upon
teat until it learns to suck.
The manager should ensure that all of
a ewe's teats are being used.
If lambs nurse and, starting at two
months, are kept free of worms, they will likely survive.
Lambs raised for meat may be fed 1 kg of grain (maize) daily
the last two months, then slaughtered at about 50 kg live
Detailed tables of the nutrient requirements of sheep for
early and late pregnancy, and lactation in ewes as well as
for early and late weaned lambs and finishing (being
slaughter) lambs are available from the National Research
in Washington, D.C. Although these figures have been
through extensive research, they should not be applied
any situation. The
sheep involved in these trials were in superb
health, free of parasites, and maintained in a thermoneutral
thermoneutral environment is one in which the animal
neither gains nor loses heat from or to its surroundings.
Sheep raised in the tropics or sub-tropics will undoubtedly
greater heat load than those in temperate zones; this
will influence their feed intake and thus the extent to which
needs for growth, reproduction, or other body functions are
Climatic stress and health status will also influence the
ability to eat and to utilize its feed.
This cannot be exactly
determined in terms of grams of feed, but should be considered
determining feed requirements and desired levels of
Physical features of pasture or range can be as important as
plants and fencing.
Such important features include rocks, slope of
hillsides, drainage, and elevation.
Sheep can harvest feed in areas of somewhat rough terrain
most animals cannot be successfully raised.
Pasture that is
extremely hilly or has many large rocks will reduce the
ability to graze.
The sheep will tend to bunch up in the flatter,
less rocky areas and may overgraze these more accessible
animals' feet may become bruised from the rough terrain,
more difficult to move around and graze.
Lame animals are usually
the thinnest and least productive individuals in a
serious problem is the accumulation of feces and urine.
wet soil encourages foot rot (caused by a soil bacterium and
fungus) and survival of parasites.
Extreme slopes can obscure sunlight, thus retarding plant
Shade plants may thrive in such an area and in such a
would be worthwhile to determine if sheep will eat these
before planning the number of sheep to be kept there.
feeding is an option where forage or crop by-products are
and affordable. The
cost of bringing the feed to the animals must
be included in planning.
Ensminger and Parker (1986) state that for every 305 meters
elevation, vegetative development is delayed 10-15
this figure refers to rangeland in the Western United
is also an elevation effect at or near the equator.
such as Mt. Kenya and Kilimanjaro in Africa and Kotopaxi in
South America, are examples.
Vegetation in the foothills and slopes
of these peaks is surely influenced by altitude.
Variation in growing season due to altitude and the type of
are important in determining the feed resource available for
taking these factors into account--as well as the
biological factors of the plants--one can determine the
animals that can be kept per hectare, known as the stocking
Herding and Handling the Flock
Sheep that have been on range are most likely to gather into
group when approached by people.
If frightened or chased by a
predator they will become scattered and more difficult to
a corral. In many
countries, dogs are often used to assist in
herding of sheep.
These are well-trained animals that know how to
move sheep slowly
and at the command of the shepherd.
dogs should never be around sheep because they will chase
prey. Dogs are
natural hunters and therefore enemies of sheep, so
great care must be taken if one plans to use sheep dogs for
Farm flocks of sheep may not be as accustomed to being
more sheep are herded and handled, the calmer they will be
likely to be injured.
As with sheep on range, they should be
approached slowly and moved into a small corral for handling.
A herd should be put into a corral for routine care, such as
baths, vaccinations, or shearing, or prior to transport for
Frightened sheep will run at fences and may try to jump out
corrals. Panic will
result in injuries and makes the animals more
difficult to handle in the future.
Some herders recognize individuals by horns, wool on the
size, or coloring.
Ear tags or paint brands on the wool can also be
used. Ear tags are
the most reliable method if properly punched in
the animal's ear.
Paint washes out of the wool or brands become
distorted as the wool grows.
Where wool is a marketable product,
paint brands should easily wash out so as not to reduce the
of the wool.
Chutes are useful to confine individuals.
They should be wide
enough for one sheep at a time to walk through but not turn
and walk out the way it entered.
When the chute is full of sheep
they will not be able to move because they are held in place
animals in front of and behind them.
This is an ideal time to check
the health of individuals.
Routine Health Checks
One should have a system for examining an animal before
to the next one.
Keeping records of individual health is very
useful in assessing performance.
Persistent problems will be
identified if records are kept from month to month.
The eyes and ears of the sheep should be examined.
Runny eyes may
Some species of flies will lay their eggs in
the eyes; hatched larvae then cause swelling, hemorrhage,
Eyes should be cleaned and ointments applied if
sheep have some nasal discharge but thick or
discolored discharge may indicate disease.
accompanied by nasal discharge or coughing are signs of
It is good practice to examine the sheep's hooves.
turning the animal on its back outside the chute.
Grasp the sheep's
jaw firmly in one hand.
(Never hold the sheep by its wool as this
will cause bruising.)
Turning the animal's head to face its rump
and push its hindquarters to the side, then flip the sheep
tail. The animal is
relatively immobile in this position, with its
weight on its lower vertebrae.
At this time trim the hooves and
check for foot rot.
While a ewe is on her back, check the teats for injuries or
Likewise examine rams' testicles for any abnormalities.
any wounds with antiseptic ointment.
For more serious infections
antibiotic injections may be necessary.
special care should be separated from the main flock as they
the chute or holding pen.
They are then kept in a small pasture so
they can be more easily treated.
Finally, examine the dock (area around the anus and vagina).
Diarrhea is common is recently weaned lambs that are
a new diet. Diarrhea
in older animals may be an indicator of poor
nutrition or internal parasites.
Where feces have accumulated in
the wool around the dock, flies are likely to lay their eggs
cause damage to the animal.
In wet climates or where flies are a
problem the wool is often cut away from the dock to prevent
Other Health Considerations
Although sheep diseases are numerous, losses from disease
usually moderate to low.
Maintaining the health of a herd or a
single animal involves the same basic principles.
assessment of individuals, as described in the previous
will allow the animal manager to find problems and take
before the animal's health and productivity suffer.
A thorough survey of even the major diseases is beyond the
this short paper.
Some health problems require a veterinarian for
diagnosis and treatment.
Veterinary services are very costly,
especially related to the economic return from a single
this reason and because such services are not always readily
available, it is worthwhile for the manager to be acquainted
common diseases and know how to prevent them or give simple
treatment. Common or
noteworthy diseases are listed below:
Anthrax is a very serious disease because the bacteria that
it multiply very rapidly in the body and death usually
occurs in a
few hours. The
disease is highly contagious and is deadly to humans
also. It is passed
in contaminated water and animal products, such
as wool (hence the term "wool sorter's disease")
and hides. The
disease is widespread in the tropics, where the bacteria
reservoirs and multiply rapidly.
In these areas vaccination is
recommended (Robertson, 1976).
Brucellosis is a bacterial infection that causes
abortion. It is
highly contagious from animal to animal and to humans.
It is passed
in milk and other body fluids.
Animal handlers may be infected by
airborne transmission of infectious agents at lambing (birth
countries have brucellosis policies that require the
slaughter of all infected animals because of the seriousness
disease in humans.
Enterotoxemia, or overeating disease, is common where sheep
grains. Signs include
sudden loss of appetite, staggering, convulsions,
and death. Treatment
consists of using antitoxins under
Vaccines are available to prevent the
Foot-and-mouth is a viral disease spread by direct contact
infected animals, which contaminate their surroundings and
the disease. Mouth
lesions, mastitis, muscle degeneration, and
eventually foot lesions are symptoms.
Vaccinations are available
but offer immunity for only four to six months.
measures are enforced, animals are quarantined and infected
slaughtered if a disease-free zone is to be
disease has been studied extensively in cattle because they
most often infected and are transported between countries in
numbers than sheep.
Foot rot is a common problem that can be prevented by proper
kept on wet pasture or dirty bedding develop
foul-smelling decay between the wall and sole of the
soil and clean bedding will help prevent this disease.
Vaccinations are available but are costly and may not be
throughout the world.
Lamb dysentery or scours is seen in the lamb as a loose
fever during the first few days after birth.
Having too many sheep
in a small area favors the bacteria that cause the
can come quickly.
Prevention involves good sanitation and keeping
the living quarters dry.
Treatment with antibiotics is only
Ewes with mastitis (infected, swollen udder) may have
mammaries or may have been suckled by a lamb that spread the
sanitation and isolation will prevent spread.
ewe has a persistent problem she should be culled (removed
flock and sold or slaughtered).
Pneumonia is a lung disease of sheep throughout the
world. It is
caused by any of several different bacteria.
Animals living in damp
conditions, particularly where ventilation is inadequate,
sanitation and ventilation will help prevent
it. Some pneumonias
clear up as the weather changes; some will
cause the animal to stop eating and may cause death.
can be treated with antibiotics.
Pregnancy disease occurs in ewes during the last two weeks
pregnancy. The ewe
trembles when exercised, shows weakness, and may
collapse. If the ewe
aborts her lamb(s) the symptoms will disappear
unless the disease has been neglected too long.
of an adequate diet of grain during the last few weeks of
Treatment consists of feeding high-energy foods such as
Sheep pox or sore mouth is a viral disease commonly seen in
It causes lesions and then scabbing around the mouth and on
teats of ewes.
Humans are infected when handling infected animals.
The disease usually runs its course with no long-term ill
unless lambs are unable to suckle for a long period and
vaccines are available for use if the problem is
serious in a flock.
Generally vaccine use is not warranted.
Sore mouth is often confused with blue tongue, which also
lesions but is not transmitted directly from sheep to
animals will not eat, have swollen tongues, become stiff,
develop secondary infections, commonly pneumonia.
Muscle tissue is
Animals should be vaccinated once per year and kept
on well-drained ground to avoid transmission by
Tetanus is a bacterial disease that attacks the central
system of all infected animals causing paralysis and
enters the body through wounds and is commonly found in the
Vaccination, good management and sanitation are the best
Tetanus and other diseases, including black quarter, big
rams, and pulpy kidney disease, are caused by bacteria that
to the Clostridium genus.
Clostridia are found in soil and feces
and so exposure to these diseases is common.
The infection often
enters through a wound or, in the case of pulpy kidney
bacteria are ingested.
By keeping the animals' housing clean and
preventing injuries by not crowding, these diseases can be
Sudden changes in diet will precipitate some clostridial
infections and so any change should be made gradually.
If the sheep
are to be put on rich pasture where their intake cannot be
they should be allowed on it for only a few hours each day
until their digestive systems adjust to the dietary change.
Sheep owners should be aware of the diseases that are common
their own areas.
Such internal parasites as liver flukes, lungworms,
and intestinal worms are problems throughout the world.
Where animals are in a continuously wet climate they are
be infected throughout the year and in some cases develop an
immunity to certain parasites.
In seasonally wet climates the
parasite burden is worst after the onset of rains, when the
Although a program of regular de-worming can
sometimes be replaced by frequent rotation of pasture land,
threat of stomach worms usually requires that a sound
program be in place when sheep raising is started.
If a program is
established it should be maintained because the animals will
any immunity to infection if not exposed to the
management can prevent many kinds of infection so a
preventive and control measures should be used.
Infection with such external parasites as ticks, fleas,
mites, and lice should be treated as recommended for the
area by a veterinarian or animal-care specialist.
Some diseases, many of which are not mentioned here, are
by laws that require owners to vaccinate or otherwise treat
livestock. This is
particularly true where animals are to be transported
between regions of a country or across international
Certificates proving vaccination, or negative blood-test
results for various diseases, are included in the law
Veterinarians or regional livestock officers of an extension
service are good sources of information on local disease
and recommended management techniques.
The Handbook on Animal
Diseases in the Tropics provides good reference
material. It outlines
transmission, symptoms, prevention, control, and treatment.
4. SCALE OF THE
The scale of the production system will always place certain
restrictions on what can be achieved from raising
sheep. If one
raises a large number of sheep the cost of labor, feed,
care, and marketing will be high.
Whether or not the cost will be
higher per unit of product, as compared with a family flock
a couple of sheep, depends on the quality of management and
of the marketplace.
A wise choice of resources and attention to the
details of daily management are keys to success no matter
or small the endeavor.
A family may choose to raise one or two sheep.
cooperative projects have been established that allow
to lease a ram for a few weeks to breed ewes.
In this way the cost
of buying and then maintaining the ram is not the burden of
marketing is also helpful where wool is collected
from several families and sold at once to a processor.
In any size operation lambs may be slaughtered for meat, and
may be used for family consumption.
Timing of breeding can allow
for a year-round supply of these products.
Care must be taken not
to deprive lambs of necessary nutrients if milk is to be
Large commercial sheep operations are based on an assumed
It would not be profitable to raise lambs or regularly shear
if there were not a way of transporting and selling those
The costs of shipping live animals to a slaughter house and
effect of this transport on the sheep should be
considered. If meat
or milk is to be shipped, refrigeration or other
methods must be readily available.
Coordinating the production time
and the demands of the market, whether it be in a regional
international market, is a complicated, but quite possible,
Marketing meat and wool is an especially challenging
because there are many countries that already have a large
the market. New
Zealand and Australia are two such countries.
wise approach might be to introduce a slightly different
than is currently available to importing nations.
In this way one
can take advantage of a new niche in the market.
A thorough knowledge
of import restrictions is mandatory because many nations
experienced serious disease problems from imported animal
Despite the complexity and cost of producing sheep it is
to benefit from their products.
A thorough knowledge of the sheep's
requirements for growth and disease prevention will aid
manager in realizing the potential from these versatile
Indeed, with any livestock program that is new in the area,
highly experienced person should plan to be in residence for
Applying basic concepts to specific climatic and
cultural conditions requires adaptability and foresight on
of the animal manager.
The following addresses are in the United States unless
Blakely, J., and Bade, David H.
The Science of Animal Husbandry,
4th ed. New York:
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