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                  Environmentally Sound
                    Forestry Projects
                    Peter F. Ffolliott
                      John L. Thames
                  Guidelines for Planning
                Coordination in Development
             Volunteers in Technical Assistance
             475 Riverside Dr., Room 1842
             New York, NY 10115
  Order books from:
             1600 Wilson, Boulevard, Suite 500
               Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
          Tel:   703/276-1800 * Fax:   703/243-1865
               Illustrations by Linda Jacobs
           Cover designed by Susann Foster Brown
                      [C] 1983 CODEL
                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
                AUTHORS' NOTE
Chapter I       USERS AND USES
                Who should use this manual?
                What is a small-scale forestry project?
                What purpose does this manual serve?
                Why plan?
                How should planning be approached?
                What is the planning process?
                Is this process definitive?
                Are education and training necessary?
                What is meant by ecology and the environment?
                What is forestry?
                How are forestry and the environment related?
                What are forest ecosystems?
                How do trees protect the productivity of ecosystems?
                What is meant by forest succession?
                 Is there an ecological difference between natural and
                  man-made forests?
                What are limiting factors?
                Can environmental concepts be used in developing successful
                  small-scale forestry projects?
                Why is it necessary to have a knowledge of good forestry
                What trees should be grown?
                How can forest growth be improved?
                Why is it important to protect forests from destructive
                How is the forest inventoried?
                How are trees harvested for wood products?
                What are institutional limitations?
                Why are legal considerations important?
                When are social considerations important?
                How are economic considerations incorporated into planning?
                What is meant by multiple -use?
                When should -multiple use forestry be practiced?
                How are multiple -use benefits and costs measured?
                When is multiple -use forestry environmentally sound?
                Are there alternatives to multiple -use?
                What wood products can be made?
                Are secondary and other by -products important?
                When should trees for wood products be harvested?
                Can wood products be harvested without environmental damage?
                What alternatives exist?
                Why is fuelwood management important?
                What is the heat content of wood?
                How are energy input and output relationships used in
                Which trees should be grown?
                How does fuelwood management affect the environment?
                Can fuelwood management be integrated with other forestry
                What is agro-forestry?
                Is there a general agro-forestry system?
                What are the environmental benefits of agro-forestry
                What are the social and economic benefits of agro-forests?
                What problems might arise in developing agro-forestry
                What are the elements in planning environmentally sound
                  agro-forestry projects?
                What are shelterbelts and wind-breaks?
                How do shelterbelts function?
                How should shelterbelts be structured?
                What patterns should be considered?
                What spacing should be used between shelterbelts?
                What characteristics should the plant species have?
                How are shelterbelts established?
                How should sheiterbelts be managed?
                What are the environmental effects of shelterbelts?
                What is meant by reforestation and afforestation?
                When is it important to plan reforestation projects?
                What environmental factors are important?
                What tree species should be selected?
                What should be considered in obtaining planting stock?
                Where should seeds be obtained?
                What is necessary in planning site preparation?
                Are small-scale forestry projects not discussed important?
                Is additional information available?
                Ecological MiniGuidelines for Small-Scale Community
                  Development Projects
     This manual is the third volume of the Guidelines for Planning
Series.  The first volume, Environmentally Sound Small-Scale
Agricultural Projects, was published in 1979; it is now available
in French and Spanish.  The second volume, Environmentally Sound
Small-Scale Water Projects, was published in 1981.   The booklets
can be ordered from VITA.
     This manual has been written for community development workers
in Third World countries who are not technicians in the area
of forestry, but who want some general guidelines for planning
environmentally sound small-scale forestry projects.
     The CODEL Environment and Development Committee has guided
the development of the Guidelines for Planning Series and this
volume.  CODEL acknowledges the contribution of the members of the
Committee who commented on drafts of the booklet:
         Father John Joe Braun, Missionaries of Africa,
              Committee Chairperson
         Ms. Elizabeth Enloe, Church World Service
         Mr. George Gerardi, Attorney at Law
         Mr. George Mahaffey, The Peace Corps
         Rev. John L. Ostdiek, Franciscan Missionary Union of
         Dr. Ragnar Overby, The World Bank
         Ms. Agnes Pall, International Division, YMCA
         Mr. C. Anthony Pryor, Center for Integrative Development
         Mr. A. Keith Smiley, Mohonk Consultations on the Earth's
         Dr. Gus Tillman, Cary Arboretum
     In addition, a number of reviewers read a draft of the text
carefully.  These include:
         J. E. M. Arnold, U.N. Food and Agricultural
         Michael Diamond, International Division, YMCA
         Hans Gregersen, University of Minnesota
         Sam Kunkle, USDA Forest Service
         Richard Saunier, Organization of American States
         Mervin Stevens, UN Food and Agriculture Organization
              and other members of the forestry staff of
         Fred Weber, Forestry Specialist
     The book was also reviewed by VITA volunteers and AID
     Ms. Molly Kux, AID Office of Forestry, Environment and
Natural Resources, has been uniquely helpful in identifying the
authors and moving the project forward.   Ms. Kux and Mr. Albert
Printz, AID Environmental Coordinator, continue to support and
encourage the Environment and Development Program and, especially,
the Guidelines for Planning Series.
     The AID Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation has
supported the development of the CODEL Environment and Development
Program.  CODEL gratefully acknowledges their contribution to the
publication of this volume.
     A special note of gratitude is owed to Carol Roever who has
worked with the Environment and Development Program since its
inception, and who contributed her accumulated expertise to the
production of this booklet.
     CODEL is pleased to publish this book by two noted
authorities in the field of Watershed Resourses Management.  Short
biographies of the authors can be found at the end of the book.
     We welcome comments from readers of the book.  A questionnaire
is enclosed for your convenience.   Please share your reactions
with us.
                         Boyd Lowry, Executive Director
                         Helen L. Vukasin, Environment and
                              Development Program
                     AUTHORS' NOTE
     The need to plan environmentally sound small-scale forestry
projects, especially in Third World countries, is increasing as
greater demands are placed on forest-based resources.   This manual
has been written to assist development workers and others in
planning these projects.  It is impossible to consider all of the
possible multiple wood products from trees and multiple uses of a
forest ecosystem in a given locale.   The authors hope that the
guidelines presented in this manual will furnish a point of
departure for environmentally sound planning of small-scale
forestry projects.
     It is important to note that planning guidelines for small-scale
forestry projects to be implemented in humid, temperate, or
arid forest ecosystems have been grouped together, whenever possible.
Certainly, specific guidelines may be more appropriate to
one particular forest ecosystem than another.   However, it was the
authors' opinion that many guidelines are general in nature, and
their applications may be independent of forest ecosystems.
     To a large extent, this booklet is intended to complement
others in the Guidelines for Planning Series co-published by CODEL
and VITA:  Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Agricultural Projects
and Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects.
     For their contributions to and suggestions for the preparation
of this manual, the authors owe a debt to many, including:
Samuel H. Kunkle and John H. Dieterich, USDA Forest Service;
Richard E. Saunier, Organization of American States; Hans M.
Gregerson, University of Minnesota; J. E. M. Arnold and Mervin
Stevens, UN Food and Agriculture Organization; Michael Diamond,
National Council of the YMCA, Fred Weber, author of Reforestation
in Arid Lands (VITA 1977), and Molly Kux, U.S. Agency for International
     Finally, the authors wish to express their gratitude to Helen
L. Vukasin, CODEL, Environment and Development Program, for her
support throughout the preparation of this manual.
Peter F. Ffolliott                      University of Arizona
John L. Thames                          Tucson, Arizona
                    CHAPTER I:  USERS AND USES
An area in Kenya desperately needed water in 1976.   There were no
permanent sources of water and only one well in the local community.
To help this situation, a cooperative project involving the
Kenya Forestry Department was initiated to build catchment dams
and to plant trees in the Hurri Hills.   The Hurri Hills are the
lifeline of the Gabra people, who graze their cattle and camels in
the hills.  Therefore, the wishes and needs of the tribe were
critical in planning the project.   As a result, the project personnel
worked with the community, after first carrying out research
to determine appropriate dam sites and trees to be planted.
Gabra elders participated in the supervision of the project, and
local people were trained to maintain dams and to plant trees.
Local labor was hired from as many households as possible.
Who should use this manual?
     This manual can be useful to development workers and those
interested in planning, implementation, or management of small-scale
forestry projects who wish to:
     --   Become aware of major factors that should be considered
         in planning small-scale forestry projects,
     --   Become acquainted with the potential of forestry projects
         to contribute to the quality of life of rural
         peoples and to local economies,
     --   Learn how to protect the life support system of the
         community through environmental relationships between
         forestry, agriculture and other land use.
What is a small-scale forestry project?
     The type of forestry planning discussed in this manual is for
projects developed at a local farm level and primarily for the
benefit of the local people.   These projects could include only
one or two farmsteads with land holdings of a few hectares, or
they could involve an entire rural community in a cooperative
effort extending over several hundred hectares.

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     Without production in rural areas, people cannot be sustained.
Unless the land produces abundantly, on a sound ecological
basis, a country is in difficulty.   Nevertheless, people who work
the land are the most vulnerable members of society.   They are the
first to feel the effects of hard times.   Environmentally sound
forestry projects can help moderate the ups and downs of local
economies by providing sustained products over long time periods.
This should be a goal of planning small-scale forestry projects.
What purpose does this manual provide?
     Complete planning involves the often more difficult task of
understanding and working within social and economic constraints
which, invariably, prevail at national, regional, and local levels
in all countries.  This is beyond the scope of this manual.   However,
it is hoped that this manual will enable development workers
to understand technical and environmental issues which are the
ultimate basis for planning and implementing sound projects.
     Specifically, the manual has two main goals:
     --   To promote technically planned and environmentally sound
         small-scale forestry projects.
     --   To assist in the transfer of technology by using the
         manual as a tool for education and extension.
     The purpose of this manual is to present an introduction to
the planning of small-scale forestry projects, particularly as
they may be integrated with agricultural and other land uses.  The
scope of the manual is limited to technical and environmental
aspects of small-scale forestry projects.
Projects are not necessarily transferable from one region to
another, even if the projects are designed to eliminate the same
problems.  For example, the Lorena stove, a stove which reduces
the amount of smoke output, has been beneficial in Guatemala.
Lorena stoves were also introduced to villages in Africa to reduce
smoke-related diseases and increase cooking efficiencies.  However,
in one area insect-carried diseases increased because insects,
formerly kept away by the smoke from open hearths, proliferated.
Consequently, the new stoves were abandoned pending a
solution to this new problem.
Why plan?
     Most areas capable of growing trees have limits in size and
ability to produce or sustain goods and services.   However, they
contribute to the well-being of people only if they are properly
managed and protected.  To attain specific goals, a proper balance
is needed between social and economic benefits derived from products
and uses, and the social and economic costs required for
operation and administration.   To achieve this balance, planning
is needed.
How should planning be approached?
     Planning begins with a dialogue whereby local people assess
their needs, define their goals and objectives, and agree on
methods for reaching the objectives.   The results of this dialogue
is a consensus which has emerged from discussions among community
members and is endorsed by the community and development worker.
This shared responsibility and understanding of an approach to an
objective or problem is especially critical for small-scale forestry
projects for two reasons:
     --   Because economic and social issues are so closely intertwined.
     --   Because long periods of nurturing and protection are
         often needed for forestry projects to yield noticeable
         and   desired results.
     Good planning has not occurred if a development worker arrives
in a location and unilaterally decides that the village can
benefit from a woodlot project in an area used by villagers to
graze their animals.  This early dialogue between villagers and
development workers (who share their knowledge and goals and agree
upon a particular approach to solve a mutually agreed upon problem)
makes it more likely that a mutually endorsed objective can
be achieved.  Trees are planted by people and cared for by people
to ultimately benefit the people.   The emphasis is on people, not
vegetation.  Forests and small-scale-forestry projects will
flourish only if the people care.   Whether or not they care depends,
in large part, upon their participation in the planning

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Planning to meet the needs
of local people -- food,
as well as fuel.
     Planning can be time-consuming.  However, without this communication
between development workers and villagers, a project is
likely to be delayed in its implementation or neglected after it
has been implemented because project designs may be inappropriate
for local conditions and needs.   A commitment to share the
decision-making process with the community does not guarantee that
a plan will succeed, but it is a prerequisite for the community
support needed to maintain a project.
     Methods for "animating" or facilitating village discussions
are discussed in various sources.   For example, the Lik-Lik Buk is
especially helpful.  Other references are listed in the bibliography
at the end of this manual.
What is the planning process?
     Ideally, the planning process follows a sequence of several
phases.  Although the overall process might be described in different
ways, the major steps are:
     --   Identifying problems and objectives by the local
     --   Establishing/identifying criteria of acceptance with
         those who will carry on the project.
     --   Evaluating various alternatives and trade-offs involved
         in selection of a project.
     Various quantitative techniques may be used to aid in completing
the basic phases of a planning process.   Some of these quantitative
techniques can be quite detailed and require the use of
computer programs and simulation techniques.   Customarily, a development
worker will not have ready access to computer programs
and simulation techniques.
     In the latter instances, it is helpful to have a checklist of
steps to be considered as planning proceeds.   The following diagram
illustrates the various stages in a planning process.

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       Explanation of the checklist:
1.     Define the problem, both in terms of sociological and
       economic factors.
       Villagers and development workers must understand and
       agree on the problem to be addressed by the potential
       project.   Special studies and information collecting may
       be needed once the problem is defined.  For instance, if
       a problem is defined as lack of fuelwood within a
       reasonable walking distance of a village, information on
       the village population and history of cooking activities
       may be needed, as well as information on the history of
       vegetation in the area.  Obviously, much of this information
        can come from the villagers knowledge of the area
       and history.  This information may be supplemented by
       information from local universities or development
       organizations working in the area.  Sometimes, this is
       called the "needs assessment" or "needs identification"
       stage.   Whatever the label, a sound planning process
       must include gathering this information at an early
2.     Specify goals and objectives of the project.
       Community involvement in specifying objectives and setting
       priorities among them is critical.  If the community
       is not involved at this stage in the planning process,
       there is little chance that the project will be
       maintained and sustained over a long period of time.
3.     Establish a model of the system in which the project
       will be implemented.
       After the problem has been defined and the project
       objectives clarified, it becomes imperative to consider
       how those objectives can be met within the established
       ecological and cultural setting.  Therefore, a model
       should be established of the physical and cultural setting
       in which the project will be implemented; this is a
       representation of how that part of the real world
       operates.   It can be done in various forms -- simple
       statements, network diagrams, or sets of detailed mathematical
       equations.  The important thing to remember is
       that a "model" should be as complete and accurate as
       possible.   The "model" includes two types of information:
       cultural and social descriptions, as well as information
       about the physical or ecological setting.  This
       information can serve as baseline data which will be
       useful when the project is evaluated.
4.     Specify criteria of acceptance.
       These are guidelines against which project alternatives
       can be evaluated.  No single set of criteria will be
       sufficient for judging the applicability of a proposed
       project.   ECONOMIC objectives, as outlined in the chapter
       on institutional limitations, are often used as
       acceptance criteria.  In addition, SOCIAL and CULTURAL
       criteria of acceptance are of the utmost importance in
       reviewing alternative projects; e.g., will grazing patterns
       be disrupted in such a way and extent as to encourage
       hostility among groups in the community?  Will
       people be available to control poaching?
       In addition, there are some general ECOLOGICAL guidelines
       which can be applied to the various types of
       forestry projects discussed in this manual.  These
       guidelines would require that projects:
        *    Provide sustained benefits over long periods of
            time while meeting current needs of the community.
        *    Conserve forest ecosystem and protect the diverse,
            indigenous plant and animal populations.
        *    Be developed to provide multiple benefits.
        *   Maintain or improve soil productivity.
        *    Use water efficiently and maintain or enhance water
        *    Use tree species appropriate to the local climate.
        *    Only use new species which have been tested to
            insure suitability to local site.
        *    Encourage the use of rapid growing, high quality
        *    Protect the forest from destructive agents.
        *    Cut trees at appropriate biological and cultural
             times, if wood products are to be harvested.
        *    Harvest in a manner which does not disrupt other
            uses of forest (soil protection, water production,
            forage, animal habitat) and which maintains site
            productivity, if wood products are to be harvested.
Criteria or guidelines which reflect the principles of APPROPRIATE
TECHNOLOGY or appropriate development have to be considered
as well.  These require that a project should:
        *    Make optimal use of locally available material and
            human resources.
        *    Have community support and involvement.
        *    Be based on community-identified and/or community-realized
        *    Increase potential for community self-reliance in
            both short and long-term.
        *    Be compatible with available funding.
        *    Make use of and adapt traditional technologies.
        *    Have reasonable time frame for the community to
            take responsibility for the project.
        *    Have potential for being maintained and monitored
            by the community.
     (These appropriate technology guidelines are taken from an
earlier volume of the Guidelines for Planning Series, Environmentally
Sound Small-Scale Water Projects.)
5.     Formulate alternatives,including both project
       alternatives and alternate implementation methods.
       Because there is seldom a "right way" to approach a
       problem, project alternatives and alternate implementation
       methods need to be considered in a creative, yet,
       careful way.  The appropriateness of dogmas from manuals
       and traditions should be examined in terms of the baseline
       data collected in the first step of planning and
       the constraints of the model developed in step 3.  Each
       developmental situation is unique; each project should
       reflect the uniqueness of the setting.
       Remember, to do nothing (meaning, not to implement any
       small-scale forestry project) is a valid alternative
       which must be considered.
6.     Test alternatives against specific criteria of
       At this stage of the planning process, trade-offs are
       evaluated as the course of action is selected.  Village
       participation continues to be essential.  Does the project
       meet the CULTURAL, ECOLOGICAL, and ECONOMIC criteria?
       Is it compatible with the model?
7.     Select best course of action, both in terms of a
       specific project and the methods for implementation.
8.     Implement the project.
9.     Review and critique progress of the project with the
       villagers, making adjustments as needed.
       The data collected when the "model" was formulated will
       again be useful here as the effects of the project are
Is this process definitive?
     No -- this is not "the" definitive planning process.   The
above discussion makes the process sound very neat and orderly.
Development workers with even limited experience know that it is
anything but that.  The steps suggested here must be adapted to
suit individual situations.  Other checklists may be more appropriate
or may be used to supplement the steps discussed here.   For
instance, the Mini-Guidelines developed by Fred Weber (see appendix
at the end of this manual) may be used to evaluate project
alternatives and evaluate trade-offs.   Regardless of the quantitative
techniques employed or checklists used, the key to good
planning is to achieve flexibility within predetermined guidelines
of acceptance.

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     However, the principles behind the process are important in
any developmental situation.   Cultural and ecological factors
usually coexist in a developmental setting.   It is always important
to maintain a continuing dialogue between development workers
and community members, whereby resources and outlooks are shared.
These principles are relevant to the development worker who is
present when the planning is just beginning or who arrives in the
midst of implementing a project.   The specific steps may be
changed, but the principles of the process endure.
Are education and training necessary?

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     Yes, both are important.
The goal of development
is self-reliant
communities.  However, the
education and training,
which make this goal attainable,
are not one-directional.
Like the
dialogue in the planning
process, education and
training have to be two-directional:
a sharing
process between the resources
of a development
worker and the resources
and knowledge of the local
community.  Because forestry
projects may not show
immediate results like
agricultural projects
which can produce new
crops after one growing
season, it is critical
that dialogue and interaction
between all parties
involved be continuous and
conducted in a genuine
spirit of sharing.
As in other tropical countries around the world, the rain and dry
forests of Bolivia are being depleted at an alarming rate.
Clearing forests for agricultural and range use by small farmers
and others contribute to the forest depletions.   Before anything
can be done to reverse the situation, involved agencies must
understand the ecology and limitations of the forests, as well as
the situation of the small farmers with neither financial means
nor know-how to utilize high technology.
What is meant by ecology and the environment?

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The study of plants,
animals and humans (as
individuals, populations
and communities), in relation
to their biological
and physical surroundings
is called ecology.  Environment,
on the other
hand, refers collectively
to the biological and physical
surroundings of
plants, animals and humans.
Also, as dealt with in
this manual, the environment
includes cultural,
social, economic and legal
aspects that must be considered
when planning
sound small-scale forestry
What is forestry?
     Forestry is the practice of managing forests and associated
natural resources for desired goals, with ecology providing a
basic foundation.  Forestry is also defined as a profession involving
the science, business, and art of managing, creating and
conserving forests and associated natural resources for the continuing
use of their values by people.
     It is important to note that while growing trees is an essential
part of forestry, other vegetation (including grasses and
grass-like plants, forbs, and shrubs) and natural resources (soil,
water, wildlife, recreation, and minerals) must be considered in
planning environmentally sound small-scale forestry projects.  A
desire to produce wood products (such as saw timber, fuelwood, or
fruits) should not lead to a disregard for the other values of
natural resources.
How are forestry and the environment related?
     Forest activities, regardless of their purpose or scale, take
place within a complex system of biological, physical, legal,
social, and economic factors, that comprise the environment.
Therefore, in planning a small-scale forestry project, all of the
factors in this complex system need to be considered.   A development
worker will have to look beyond technical designs to understand
the interrelationships among the environmental factors in
determining project feasibility.
What are forest ecosystems?
     When viewing a site for a proposed project a development
worker is looking at a kind of ecosystem.   An ecosystem is the
basic unit in ecology.  It is a complex system including plants,
animals, and humans in their environment that can be mentally
isolated for purposes of planning.
     Within forest ecosystems, there are producers, consumers,
predators (and scavengers), and decomposers.   Forest plants are
producers and are able to convert sunlight and nutrients into
plant tissues.  Many of these plant tissues are used as food by
consumers (such as insects, birds, rodents, domestic animals, and
man).  When consumers eat other animals, they become predators.
Decomposers (chiefly bacteria and fungi), break down dead organic
materials,  absorb some of the products of decomposition, and
release substances for use by producers.   Interactions among producers,
consumers, predators, and decomposers, which define a
"food web," must be analyzed when planning an environmentally
sound project.

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     When a small-scale forestry project is implemented, relationships
among living organisms and their environment are usually
changed.  If there have been no major changes in recent years, a
forest ecosystem is probably in balance.   In other words, it is
self-perpetuating and in equilibrium with the environment.  A
decision to change the ecosystem (for example, by harvesting wood
products) must be made with an awareness of the existing system,
and an understanding of how the change will affect the balance
within that system.
How do trees protect the productivity of ecosystems?
     Soils are basic to the productivity of any ecosystem.  Trees
protect soils from wind by serving as wind-breaks, from water by
intercepting rainfall (so that it can be more slowly absorbed into
soils), and from the sun by providing shade.   This protection, in
turn, allows dead organic materials to decompose and oxidize,
releasing nutrients for growth of forest plants.   Dead organic
materials on top of the soils also retain moisture, providing
water for plant growth.
     What can happen when the protection of trees is taken away
and not replaced by other vegetation may be illustrated through a
few examples:
     --   Winds can pick up and blow away dead organic materials
         and, thereby, dry out soils, resulting in a lessening of
         inherent site productivity.
     --   Nutrient-rich soils may be dislodged by intense rainfall
         and carried away by surface runoff, again lessening the
         productivity of a site.
     --   Trees maintain soil porosity (a measure of the space in
         a soil body not occupied by solids, important in determining
         the degree of soil aeration), absorb rainfall,
         and help retard runoff which, in turn, protects villages
         and agricultural crops from floods.  With the removal of
         trees, protection against flooding can also disappear.
     --   Primary sources of saw timber, fuelwood, and other wood
         and non-wood products are no longer available for local
         needs, or for marketing.
     --   Diversity of plants and animals is affected, with many
         species disappearing due to a loss of suitable habitat
         (including food and cover).
     --   Recreational values such as hunting and fishing are
         often detrimentally affected.
What is meant by forest succession?
     The natural process of change in the composition of a forest
ecosystem is called forest succession.   These changes take place
in response to changes in the environment and in response to
climatic and  site factors that are changed by the forest vegetation
itself.  Primary succession occurs on newly exposed sites
(such as lava flows and sand dunes), whereas secondary succession
occurs after the previous forest plants are destroyed or disturbed
(by fire or agricultural operations, for example).
     If undisturbed for a long time, forest ecosystems evolve from
initially bare areas into a final, stabilized type of vegetation
into a dominant type of vegetation through a series of successional
steps.  This dominant vegetation is called the climax
forest type.  Once established, no other tree species can naturally
invade and replace the climax, unless the type is subjected to
an external form of destruction or disturbance.   Also, a change in
one or more of the climatic or site factors that brought the
forest climax into existence can result in the replacement of the

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     The development worker should understand these successional
trends.  Some projects can have major impacts on succession, such
as causing erosion of top soils, or reducing the level of water
tables.  These impacts, in turn, can either be reversible or
irreversible by natural processes.   If reversible, it is possible
to have regeneration of the forest; if irreversible the results
may be deforestation or desertification.
     Areas can be found around the world where man cleared forests
hundreds of years ago, and the unprotected sites have remained
barren and unproductive -- an example of the process of desertification.
Is there an ecological difference between natural and man-made
     Yes -- there are important ecological differences between
natural and man-made forests (or plantations) which must be taken
into consideration when planning a small-scale forestry project
that is environmentally sound.

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     Natural forests regenerate naturally, either by natural seeding
or from vegetative reproduction of plants on the site.   Often,
but not always, natural forests are comprised of several native
tree species, with the trees having different ages.
     Once established, and if not disturbed or destroyed, natural
forests will proceed along well defined successional trends.  It
may be necessary to hold back succession and to check the natural
encroachment of the less valuable trees.   This is why controlled
burning to discourage forest succession is considered a good
forestry practice in some situations.
     Man-made forests are regenerated artificially, either by
sowing or planting -- this is a man-made forest ecosystem.
Depending upon the purpose, man-made forests often consist of a
single tree species (either native or introduced), with the trees
having one age.
What are limiting factors?
     To occur and thrive in a given situation, trees must have
basic nutrients which are necessary for reproduction and growth.
These basic requirements vary with tree species and with the
situation.  Basic nutrients available in amounts closely approaching
the critical minimum need for reproduction and growth tend to
be limiting factors.
     Forest ecosystems are inherently able to support a number of
plants, animals and humans.  The limits of this support are determined
by the availability of the essential materials for life;
this limit is referred to as the biological potential of the site.
Obviously, the biological potential of a fertile flood plain is
higher than that of an arid upland of the same area because
greater amounts of water, more nutrients, and better soils are

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     Often, the biological potential can be improved by increasing
the availability of limiting factors.   For example, forest production
can often be increased by adding fertilizer or water; or, in
the case where pests (such as insects) are limiting, pest control
may be required to improve the biological potential.
     When considering limiting factors, it is important to remember
     --   Satisfying the most obvious limiting factor may not
         solve the problem.  In fact, increasing the availability
         of one limiting factor may reveal the presence of
         another (as, for example, when a forester adds fertilizer,
         only to discover that tree growth is limited by too
         little water).
     --   Changing existing conditions by increasing the availability
         of limiting factors can harm organisms that have
         adapted to living under the existing conditions.
     --   There are limits to the amounts of nutrients and other
         essential materials that plants can utilize.  Too much
         fertilizer can be as detrimental as not enough.
Can environmental concepts be used in developing successful small-scale
forestry projects?
     By analyzing potential ecological changes that can be brought
about by implementing a project, and by placing these anticipated
changes (including both good and bad effects) into perspective in
terms of environmental impacts, a development worker can judge the
feasibility of the project with respect to possible alternatives.
     Sound planning requires awareness of:
     --   Environmental concepts as they relate to the type of
         forestry project under consideration.
     --   A basic planning process, as outlined in Chapter 2 of
         this manual.
In 1976, a unique afforestation project was funded by a PVO in
India.  It was unique because all of the land in the project area
was supplied by small farmers, directly linking the fate of the
farmers to the fate of the project.   The idea was to plant timber
and fuelwood trees on wastelands, and fruit trees on fallow and
semi-wastelands.  Hopefully, the trees would provide income and
food, while acting to retain water in the soil.   By 1980, the soil
conditions had been improved, and enough income had been generated
from sale of trees to distribute some of the receipts among the
Why is it necessary to have a knowledge of good forestry practices?
      It is important that a development worker have some knowledge
of good forestry practices to predict whether ecological changes
that result from small-scale forestry activities are benefits or
     This manual is not intended to be a "how to" reference on
technical forestry practices.   A list of references on forestry
practices for use in the planning of environmentally sound small-scale
forestry projects can be found in a bibliography at the end
of this manual.  However, a brief introduction to principles of
selecting trees to grow, improving forest growth, protecting
forests from destructive agents, inventorying forest characteristics,
and harvesting wood products can provide helpful background
in determining whether or not a given project should be undertaken.
What trees should be grown?
     Natural regeneration of trees already in an area often dictates
the tree species which should be grown.   In these situations,
a development worker may have little choice but to develop
a project with existing tree species in mind.   Elsewhere, artificial
regeneration through planting of seeds or seedlings may be
needed.  With respect to artificial regeneration, a selection of
tree species must be made.
     The question of what tree species to plant is addressed best
at the local level.  Specific species of trees to be planted under
specific conditions requires planting guides.   Such guides, in
brief, should indicate what tree species are adaptable to any
given soil, exposure, and degree of erosion.   Generalized planting
guides are available for use in many of the forest ecosystems
throughout the world.  Often, those guides can be localized to
assist in the planning of a project.
     Below are some broad guidelines for choosing tree species.
See Bibliography for specific tree selection information.
     --   Native tree species from the area for which biological
         and silvacultural knowledge is available are usually the
         safest choice.
     --   Introduced tree species should be used with some caution
         until their suitability has been demonstrated by testing
         in the area.
     --   Whenever possible, select seeds or seedlings of known
         genetic superiority.
     --   Tree species (native or introduced) selected for planting
         should meet the following requirements:  ease of
         obtaining seed or seedlings, ease of establishment,
         immunity to insect or disease attacks, fast growth,
         production of useful forest products, social acceptability,
         and desirable wood-producing characteristics.
     --   Seasonal precipitation patterns are important determinants
         of tree species to grow; tree species native to
         winter rainfall areas usually will not thrive in summer
         rainfall areas, although tree species native to summer
         rainfall areas are likely to succeed in winter rainfall
     --   As a general rule, tree species can be successfully
         moved from their home to other sites on the same parallel
         of latitude because of the similarity in climate;
         however, some tree species are so exacting in their
         requirements that even a very small variation in season
         or intensity of site factors may cause failure.
     --   Tree species to be planted must fit the purpose in view,
         whether it be saw timber, fuelwood, wind-breaks, or
         watershed stabilization.
     --   To insure successful results, regardless of the tree
         species selected, the following considerations are important:
         when to plant, how to plant, site preparation
         and spacing, and care after planting.
How can forest growth be improved?
     In many respects, a forest is like a vegetable garden -- a
farmer cannot grow a good crop unless he does some weeding and
thinning.  It is the same in a forest.  When harvesting trees for
wood products, consideration should be given to improving the
quality and the condition for growth of the remaining trees to get
a good wood crop in the future.
     The following diagrams and explanations illustrate situations
where weeding and thinning of trees may improve forest growth.

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     --   Trees 1, 4, 7, and 10 are healthy trees with full crowns
         and are making rapid growth.   These should not be cut
         until they are large enough to be harvested as saw
         timber, if markets are available.
     --   Tree 2 has a dead top, is subject to disease and insect
         damage, and will probably die soon.  This tree should be
         cut and utilized.
     --   Tree 3 hinders or suppresses growth of nearby trees and
         reproduction underneath.  It is called a "wolf tree."
         This tree should be removed.
     --   Tree 5 is a forked tree with poor form that will never
         permit its use in high quality wood products.  This tree
         should be cut and utilized as soon as possible.
     --   Tree 6 is a suppressed tree that will never recover nor
         amount to anything of value.  This tree should be cut
         and utilized as fuelwood, poles, or posts.
     --   Tree 8 is a crooked and poorly formed tree (same recommendation
         as for Tree 5).
     --   Tree 9 originated as a stump sprout which, quite possibly,
         is rotten on the inside or will be if it joins the
         old stump very high up.  This tree should be cut and
     --   Tree 11 has a weak and narrow crown and not much promise
         as a crop tree.  It is called a "whip tree."  This
         tree should be cut and utilized before it dies, breaks
         off, or blows down.
     --   Tree 12 is a fire-scarred tree with a decayed stem.  It
         should be cut and utilized.
     --   Tree 13 is a dead tree that is probably not damaging
         nearby trees.  If it cannot be used as a wood product,
         there may be no object in cutting it.  Often, a dead
         tree may be beneficial to wildlife.
     --   Tree group 14 consists of trees that are small in diameter
         and are growing too close together.  These should be
         thinned, leaving only the best formed and the most
         desirable ones, permitting their faster growth.  The cut
         trees may have value as fuelwood, poles, or posts.
     The situations illustrated above apply, in general, to
forests which have not been heavily grazed by domestic animals,
and which have a fairly large number of trees.   In a heavily grazed
forest with a few trees, the best way to improve forest growth may
be through complete protection.
     It is important to understand that weeding and thinning of
trees will not usually cause trees to grow taller.   Instead,
elimination of crowding among trees will increase diameter growth,
which has a greater impact on future volume and value.

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     A practice that may not directly improve forest growth, but
often enhances the value of commercial trees, is pruning.  As used
in forestry, pruning consists of cutting off the side branches of
trees so that the wood subsequently formed on the stem will be
free of knots.  Knot-free trees are of higher value for saw timber
and plywood; also, poles and posts cut from knot-free trees possess
greater strength than those cut from knotty trees.
Why is it important to protect forests from destructive agents?
     All agricultural crops have their enemies.  Forests are not
exceptions.  In particular, fire, insects, diseases, grazing by
domestic animals, and even man can destroy (or at least reduce)
the productivity of unprotected forests.

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     In spite of public
campaigns about potential
fire damage, forest owners
often do not heed the
warnings.  At times, people
fail to understand
that small fires burning
slowly along the ground
can kill small trees, even
though larger trees are
not killed.  Only when a fire gets out of control and threatens
buildings and other holdings do they become aroused.
     The components of combustion - heat, oxygen, and fuel - are
often pictured as a triangle.   The "fire triangle," a graphical
representation of the three components of combustion, is used in
training people to fight fires.   A fire fighter's job is to break
up this combination by:  removing the fuel, reducing or removing
the supply of oxygen, or reducing the temperature below the kindling

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     The most important step in the control of fire is prevention;
an enlightened public is the best form of fire prevention.
     Under hazardous conditions, fire-breaks, or  barriers, are
good insurance.  A satisfactory fire-break can be made by plowing
a strip about a harrow wide around a forest, and then keeping it
open by subsequent harrowings.
     Forest fires, when they occur, are of three general types,
each of which requires a different form of control:
     --   Ground fire, in which the organic soil is burned, can be
         controlled by saturating the ground with water, if
         available, or by digging a trench down to mineral soil
         around the fire.
     --   A crown fire, which spreads through the tops of trees,
         is the most difficult for man to control; in fact, about
         all that can be done is to check such fires to warn
         others of its danger.
     --   The most common type of fire is one that burns on the
         surface.  It is most frequently controlled by scraping
         away flammable fuels immediately ahead of the fire.
     While often destructive, controlled application of fire can
be prescribed in certain forest ecosystems to meet specific management
objectives, including:
     --   Fuel reduction
     --   Seedbed preparation
     --   Control of competing vegetation
     --   Improvement of grazing
     --   Wildlife habitat management
     Prescribed burning must be confined to a predetermined area
at an intensity of heat and rate of spread required to produce the
desired effects.  To achieve success, a development worker should
consult with local fire management specialists in preparing an
appropriate prescribed burning program.
Insects and Diseases

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     Damage to a forest
from insects and diseases
is, in general, in direct
proportion to the misuse
of the forest.  Fire,
grazing by domestic animals,
and even excessive
cutting of a forest often
lowers the natural resistance
of trees, permitting
insect and disease pests
to get a foothold.  Also, trees growing in an unsuitable environment
can become weakened and invite hosts to epidemics.
     When epidemics occur, there is usually no practical control
except to remove and, if possible, utilize the infested or diseased
trees.  Artificial control measures, such as the use of
insecticides, must be practiced with extreme care.   In some instances,
use of chemicals can be more damaging to an environment
than the existence of the pest being controlled by the chemical.
Grazing by Domestic Livestock

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     At times, uncontrolled
grazing by domestic
animals can be more harmful
to trees (by destroying
seedlings and saplings
through browsing and trampling)
than almost any
other destructive agent.
Furthermore, a farmer or
herder who uses a forest
for a pasture can, under
certain situations, cause a loss not only to himself but to the
livestock as well.  Forage grown under a forest cover can be
poorer, in both quantity and quality, than that grown in open

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     Even though people
may have the proper technology
to practice good
forestry, man can unknowingly
damage or destroy
forest crops.  For example,
it may become necessary,
through continuing
education and training, to
reinforce the concept of
protecting (and respecting)
highly vulnerable young trees.   Otherwise, mature and fully-stocked
forests may not be attained.
     The key to the problem may be motivation -- people may need
to be motivated to realize the results of protection and, as a
consequence, a productive forest.
How is the forest inventoried?
     A forest inventory is concerned, for the most part, with
measurements of individual trees, forest stands, growth rates, and
site quality.
     Individual tree measurements form a basis for estimating the
volume of standing trees that can be harvested for wood products.
The most commonly made tree measurements are:
     --   Diameter of the tree stem, usually taken at 1.3 meters
         above the ground for standardization and convenience;
         diameters are commonly measured in centimeters.
     --   Height of the tree, either total or to the top of that
         part that can be sold, heights are measured in terms of
     Techniques of obtaining diameter and height measurements are
outlined in references on forestry practices at the end of this
     Given knowledge of diameter and height, the volume of a tree
can be determined from a volume table.   This table specifies the
volume of a tree, usually in terms of cubic meters, from diameter
and height measurements.  If appropriate volume tables are not
available for use, consult local or regional foresters who have
specific knowledge regarding the calculation or volume of native
     Care should must be exercised in estimating the volume of
shrubby trees with crooked, multiple stems, rather than distinct
ones.  Often, local measurement customs may be employed in these
     An important objective of many forest inventories is to
obtain an estimate of the number of trees in relation to the
volume of trees, on a hectare basis, in a forest.   Unless there
are a few trees of exceptionally high quality involved in which
case a complete tally may be made only a sample of trees is
selected for measurement.  In general, tree measurements recorded
on sample areas (one-tenth-hectare plots, for example) are expanded
to the total area under consideration.   Many options of plot
size and sampling design exist; those selected by the development
worker should be consistent with the purpose of the forest inventory.
     The average growth of trees is, by definition, their volume
divided by their age.  While the volume of a tree is relatively
easy to approximate, determination of age is more difficult.  In
general, there are three common methods used to estimate the age
of a tree -- by appearance (size, shape of crown, and texture of
bark), by branch whorls, or by annual rings.   Unfortunately, tree
growth is not characterized by annual rings in many forest ecosystems
of the world, particularly those occurring in the humid
     Knowledge of average growth of trees is important in helping
to determine when wood products should be harvested from trees.
Typically, average growth of trees increases slowly, attains a
maximum, and then falls more gradually.   As mentioned in Chapter 7
of this manual, the ages at which maximum average growth is attained
is often regarded as an ideal time to harvest trees for
wood products.

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     Evaluation of site quality is important in identifying productivity,
both present and future, of forests.   Knowledge of
productivity, in turn, is useful in long-term planning.   Site
quality is the aggregate of all environmental factors affecting
growth and survival of trees in a forest.   Various approaches, too
numerous to present in this manual, have been devised to evaluate
site quality.  The approach selected by a development worker
should reflect local forest conditions and, to be useful, require
only easily obtained measures for interpretation.
How are trees harvested for wood products?
     Harvesting wood products involves considerable skill, tools,
knowledge and equipment to do a creditable job.
     Axes, saws, wedges, and sledges are all that are necessary to
fell trees and cut them into desired lengths.   Power-chain saws
are finding their place in many harvesting operations.   However,
while they make the harvesting job easier, their high cost can
make them uneconomical, except in large operations.

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     After trees are felled and cut into desired lengths, they
must be carried or pulled to a loading point.   If tree lengths are
too heavy to carry, a simple drag or sled can be used to pull
them, using an available power source such as a tractor or a
domestic animal.
     A universally employed method of loading tree lengths on a
vehicle is the "cross-haul" method.   One end of a chain or cable
is attached to the underside of the vehicle to be loaded, and the
other end is placed under the tree lengths to a tractor or team of
domestic animals.  Two poles, large enough to bear the weight of
the tree lengths, are placed against the vehicle, as shown below.

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     Harvesting trees for wood products should be done with an eye
toward good forestry practices.   Before a tree is cut, the following
questions should be answered:
     --   Is the tree to be cut the size needed to be usable?
     --   Is the tree the best species available for the intended
         wood product?
     --   Is the tree ripe, or does it show signs of deterioration
         from old age or from insects and diseases?  Evidence of
         deterioration might suggest that the tree should be cut.
     --   Is the tree growing rapidly, and does it have a full
         crown and smooth bark?  If so, the tree is probably
         vigorous and perhaps should be retained as part of the
         growing stock for future harvesting.
     --   What kind of plant reproduction will result from the
         cut?   It should be remembered that preventing regeneration
         of brush and other comparatively worthless plant
         species is one of the principal aims of good forestry.
     Throughout many countries in the world, fuelwood is harvested
not by felling and cutting trees into desired lengths, but rather
by simply picking up branchwood, leaves, and other woody materials
from a forest floor.  Often, women and small children are responsible
for fuelwood gathering, which can take them far distances
from their homes.

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     Many secondary and other by-products of the forest, such as
fruits and nuts, are also harvested through gathering efforts,
again in many instances by women and children.
The Ministry of Natural Resources is the lawful Philippine governmental
agency created to strike a balance between exploitation
and replenishment of natural resources, and between conservation
and use.  The objectives of the Ministry are:  to assess the
status of the country's natural resources for their programmed
exploitation and use; to provide for their replacement; to conserve,
revitalize, develop, and manage the country's natural resources
for present and future generations; and to increase the
productivity of the country's natural resources in reference to
their current exploitation and use.
What are institutional limitations?
     In reality, two sets of limitations determine the degree of
success of a small-scale forestry project.   First, there are
natural limitations, involving biological and physical relationships.
Second, there are institutional limitations to forestry
activities, which are every bit as important as natural limits in
the planning of an effective project.
     Institutional limitations, unlike natural limitations, are
established by man to meet specific conditions and, therefore, can
be modified by man in response to changes in legal, social, and
economic situations.
Why are legal considerations important?
     Perhaps the most important of the institutional limitations
of a small-scale forestry project involves legal considerations,
which are limitations sanctioned by law.   In general, two primary
areas of law must be regarded in the formulation of a project:
laws which address ownership and use of the products of natural
resources, and laws which regulate the use of land or land

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     A development worker should consult with local authorities to
be sure that a small-scale forestry project can be implemented
within the existing legal framework.
When are social considerations important?
     Legal considerations, as discussed above, are "formalized
rules" that guide the conduct of man.   Less explicit, but equally
important, are guidelines derived from other cultural features of
a society -- from tradition, religion and folklore.   As with laws,
these  social considerations must be reflected in the decision-making
process.  Failure to do so can lead to adverse reactions
that can severely restrict one's freedom.
     Cultural considerations determine, in part, the options
available to a planner of environmentally sound small-scale
forestry projects.  From the flood plains of the Mekong River
Basin to the fragile desert environments of northwestern Africa,
situations can be found in which social patterns restrict implementation
of a particular forestry practice.
     Social constraints are often difficult to assess.  They are
not usually susceptible to easy solution and can easily be
ignored.  However, to do so is folly.  To increase the possibility
of environmentally sound forest management, it is essential to
include local people in planning objectives of the project.
Training and public education are also important.
How are economic considerations incorporated into planning?
     A development worker must select the best course of action in
implementing a forestry practice, given alternative plans.  The
decision among alternatives to select often requires economic
considerations.  Although a part of the institutional framework,
economics involves certain patterns of rational analysis, the
techniques of which are well known for many situations.
     To make an economic analysis of alternative courses of
action, three general objectives can form a basis of choice.
These objectives are:
     --   Maximization of benefits.
     --   Maximization of the returns on investment.
     --   Achievement of a specified "production goal" at the
         least cost.
     Analysis of these objectives can give a development worker
and local people a better understanding of the economic implications
of selecting a particular course of action.
     To analyze the first two objectives, responses to alternative
courses of action and costs of implementation must be known.  Some
information can be obtained from previous local experience.  If
the course of action is newly adopted, the development worker can
seek available prediction techniques.
     To satisfy the third objective, goals should be established
for various levels of production.   These goals are most effective
if set according to values of local residents, coupled with long-range
goals derived through the political process.
Eucalyptus is a fast-growing tree, which is also valuable for
lumber and fuelwood.  To plant more Eucalyptus in Upper Volta, all
ground cover was cleared, including bushes with edible leaves.
The primary source of food for the local people was porridge
topped by a sauce made of these leaves.   As it turned out, the
Eucalyptus leaves are not edible.   Therefore, the health of the
local people was seriously impaired, as they lost an important
food supply.
What is meant by multiple use?
     The term "multiple use" has many different meanings.   When
applied to land areas, multiple use refers to the management of a
variety of natural resource products and uses on a unit of land.
The relation of the natural resources to one another may be:
     --   Competitive, where one must be sacrificed to gain more
         of another.
     --   Complementary, where both increase or decrease together.
     --   Supplementary, where a change in one will have no
         influence on another.
     When applied to a particular natural resource, multiple use
refers to the use of the natural resource for various products and
uses.  For example, trees may be harvested for saw timber, fuelwood,
or posts, or they may be used to produce fruit, seeds or
flowers.  Forage may have value as feed for domestic livestock, or
for watershed stabilization.   Water may be used for drinking,
irrigation, or fish habitats.   Here again, the use can be competitive,
complementary, or supplementary.
     In practice, multiple use often involves both units of land
and natural resources.  Demands on a particular natural resource
(trees) for a specific use (fuelwood) place demands on the land
area where the natural resources are produced (forests).

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When should multiple-use forestry be practiced?
     From a biological, social, and economic standpoint, multiple-use
forestry should be practiced whenever possible.   A basic
objective of multiple-use forestry is to manage the natural resources
of a forest for the most beneficial combination of present
and future uses.  The idea of maximizing the benefits derived from
the natural resources of a forest is not new, but it has become
more important as people's demands for limited and often interrelated
natural resource products and uses increase.
     It is important to keep in mind that multiple-use management
of forests can be achieved by any one of the following options, or
by any combination of the three:
     --   Concurrent and continuous use of the natural resource
         products and uses obtainable from a forest which ensures
         production of different goods and services from the same
     --   Alternating or rotating uses of natural resources for
         specified periods of time.
     --   Geographical separation of uses so that multiple-use is
         practiced across a mosaic of strata in a forest.
     All of these options are valid multiple-use forest management
practices which can be applied in the most suitable combinations.
     From society's point of view, multiple-use forest management
can involve a broader set of requirements than concern an individual
person.  Generally, society is more interested in preserving
benefits for future generations, while an individual often makes
decisions based on desires to satisfy relatively short-term needs.
If possible, effective multiple-use forestry projects should accommodate
the full spectrum of today's needs and provide for
tomorrow's requirements.
How are multiple-use benefits and costs measured?
     Deciding whether or not a project is worthwhile requires
measurements of anticipated benefits derived from all of the
natural resource products and uses of a forest and of costs that
will to be incurred in implementing the project.   Measurement and
analyses of benefits and costs associated with alternative projects
may be necessary before a development worker can select the
best course of action.

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Measurement of Benefits
     Benefits include those obtained from fuelwood, timber, forage
for animals, both domestic and wild, water production, recreation,
etc.  Estimates of these anticipated benefits can be obtained from
earlier work, from local experience, or through prediction techniques.
     Measurements of natural resource products and uses can be
summarized in a table form, known as a "product mix."  Such a    
table describes multiple -use by quantitatively presenting all of
the products and uses obtained from a particular area.   A product
mix developed before a project is implemented can form a reference
for comparison with product mixes representing conditions after
implementation.  These comparisons show what is gained and lost in
multiple-use terms and therefore provide a basis for determining
project feasibility.
                           TABLE 1
Product mix for alternative forestry practices being considered
for implementation in a hypothetical temperature forest ecosystem.
Item                      [T.sub.0]   [T.sub.1]     [T.sub.2]     [T.sub.3]
                                                     Uneven-       Even-
                            As is      Convert        aged          aged
Timber cut ([m.sup.3])       0.0       9.0            4.9           3.8
Timber growth ([m.sup.3])    4.2       2. 5           5.5           5.2
Livestock (kg gain)          0.068     0.48           0.0045        0.27
Wildlife                     0.021     0.034          0.032         0.033
  (number of deer)
Water (cm)                  15.0      22.0           16.0          18.0
(*) On one hectare, if things remain as they are ([T.sub.0]), the annual
    output will be 4.2 cubic meters ([m.sup.3]) of timber growth, enough
    forage for 0.068 kilograms (kg) of livestock gain, 0.021 deer,
    and 15 centimeters (cm) of water.  No timber will be cut.
(*) With conversion of moist sites to grass ([T.sub.1]) the annual output
    will be 2.5 cubic meters of timber growth, enough forage for
    0.48 kilograms of livestock gain, 0.034 deer, and 22 centimeters
    of water.   Approximately 9.0 cubic meter of timber will be cut
    on each hectare.
(*) Columns [T.sub.2] and [T.sub.3] contain the elements of uneven- and even-aged
    forest management systems, respectively.
(*) It is important to note that, if [T.sub.0] was judged as best by
    assessing the advantages and disadvantages in natural resource
    product and use response, the existing management system should
    be continued.
     It may be necessary to convert physical expression of what is
gained and lost in multiple-use terms to corresponding expressions
of monetary or other economic value.   If information is available,
this conversion can be achieved by simply multiplying physical
units by appropriate monetary values on a per unit basis.  In most
cases, it may not be possible to assign specific monetary values
to the products and uses.  However, other indicators of economic
worth can possibly be assumed through personal judgements of local
Measurement of Costs
     Costs of implementing small-scale forestry projects usually
reflect a given economic situation over time.   Information on
costs that reflect local conditions may be available and, if so,
can be used to estimate costs of implementing various projects.
Otherwise, a development worker may have to:
     --   Estimate necessary inputs of labor time, equipment time,
         supervision time (if required), and materials.
     --   Determine overall costs by multiplying the above inputs
         by current wage rates, machine rates, and material
         costs, and then summing the product.
     Here again, monetary values may have to be approximated from
personal judgements of local conditions and customs.
Economic Analysis
     As mentioned in Chapter 5 of this manual, to make an economic,
analysis of a project, such as a small-scale multiple-use forestry
project, general objectives are usually considered to form a basis
for choice.  In reality, an economic analysis of such projects
consists of several economic analyses, each of which is designed
to help a development worker and local people make a better
     Individual economic analysis may yield a "one-answer solution"
the problem of selecting a project that maximizes returns
to the land.  A group of economic analyses, based on different
criteria, will result in an array of items for decision-making.
Such an array could include the following:
     --   Estimates of multiple -use production (such as cubic
         meters of saw timber or kilograms of forage) associated
         with alternative small-scale forestry projects.
     --   Estimates of implementation costs of project alternatives.
     --   Least-cost solutions for different goals of multiple-use
     --   Gross and net benefits associated with a range of possible
         project alternatives.
     --   Investment returns and benefit-cost ratios associated
         with different project alternatives.
      --  Project cost over time by using carefully selected
         discounts and interest rates which will be applied for
         the entire length of the rotation.
Consult Bibliography for additional information.
When is multiple-use forestry environmentally sound?
     With careful planning, and consideration of all of the possible
natural resource products and uses obtainable in a forest,
multiple-use forestry can be practiced in an environmentally sound
manner.  Perhaps the concept of planning for multiple-use can be
illustrated with an example.
     Under certain conditions, harvesting of wood products and
grazing domestic animals are two uses that can occur together,
making full use of many forest ecosystems.   Harvesting trees for
wood products reduces the forest cover, which can improve forage
in terms of quantity and quality.   With improved forage, it may be
possible for additional domestic animals to be grazed.   In these
situations, it can be to the advantage of a development worker and
local people to consider potential multiple benefits from both
uses, and plan accordingly.
     However, it should also be remembered that in other situations,
particularly in arid ecosystems, forage can only grow in
the shaded micro-environments underneath trees, as survival is not
possible in the open.  Here, it may become necessary to favor one
use as dominant, even though multiple-use may be a desired goal.

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     Whether harvesting (and more generally, growing) trees and
grazing by domestic animals can be joint uses of a forest also
depends, in large part, on the kinds of animals being grazed.  A
development worker should realize that:
     --   Grazing by cattle can be harmful in forests comprised of
         seedlings and young succulent trees; cattle often browse
         and trample these trees.
     --   Grazing by goats and sheep, which eat almost anything,
         is particularly damaging to forest ecosystems.  Therefore,
         use of a forest by these animals may have to be
     --   Similarly, grazing by hogs can be quite destructive, as
         they uproot seedlings and young succulent trees to eat
         the fleshy roots.
     In general, when forests are used for harvesting trees for
wood products and grazing by domestic animals, carefully planned
harvesting operations can be carried out in conjunction with
controlled grazing to minimize detrimental environmental consequences.
Are there alternatives to multiple-use?
     Early use of forests, either natural or man-made, usually
emphasized a single product -- such as a particular wood product.
Although these forests had the potential for other uses, little
attention was paid by local people to those natural resource
products and uses that were abundant.
     As development takes place in Third World countries, peoples'
tastes change and cash income becomes available or increases.
Primary products and uses resulting from forests being managed for
a single product may not meet demand.   Consequently, pressure is
on the planner of small-scale forestry projects to recognize
multiple-use possibilities and to effectively maximize the various
possible uses of the forest in planning projects.
Under the direction of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
of the United Nations, new forest plantations were created in
Andhra Pradesh, India.  Plans called for these plantations to be
fenced in until ready for harvesting.   However, local farmers who
were desperately in need of lumber and fuelwood, and not aware of
the possible future benefits of the plantations, poached so heavily
that the new crop of trees was destroyed.
What wood products can be made?
     Forests can be managed in a manner that is similar to agricultural
croplands, although forestry is a long -term business
while agricultural crops are usually grown on annual seasonal
rotations.  Like other crops, trees for wood products are harvested
and used locally or sold for profit.   Considerations in
harvesting trees for wood products involve recognition of the
various products possible, understanding the specifications and
quality standards of the products, and knowledge of when to harvest
and when to market the products.
     The discussion below focuses on a selection of wood products
commonly produced in Third World Countries.   For a more detailed
discussion of the subject, see the bibliography at end of this
     As discussed in Chapter 8 of this manual, an increasingly
important use of the forest is for fuelwood.   In general, most
reasonably well seasoned tree species can be used for fuel.  However,
the value of a tree for cooking and heating purposes is
roughly equivalent to its weight.   For a given volume, heavier
woods generally produce greater amounts of energy.   Usually, there
are no specifications or quality standards for fuelwood, except
those established locally.
     Charcoal is the carbon residue of partially burned wood.  (In
making charcoal, enough air is admitted to a kiln to burn the
gases driven off by the burning wood, but not enough to consume
the residue.)  The process of making charcoal is complex and
requires technical information beyond the scope of this manual.
See Bibliography.
Poles, Posts and Pilings
     Poles, posts and pilings are examples of round wood products.
Soundness, straightness, and a gradual taper from butt to top are
general requirements for good round wood products.   Sizes are
variable, depending upon specific uses and local demands.  Some
tree species do not decay or are termite-resistant; others are
not.  When poles and posts are to be cut from trees subject to
decay or termites, treatment with chemical preservatives may be
required.  If chemical preservatives are used, care must be exercised
to prevent harmful effects to both the environment and the
handlers of the products.  Chemicals should be chosen carefully
and warnings on the labels observed.
Saw Timber
     Tree lengths intended for sawing into boards, planks, or
other construction materials are known as saw timber.   Many tree
species that grow to sufficient size are potentially usable.
General criteria for saw timber are:
     --   Tree lengths up to 30 centimeters and larger in diameter,
         and at least 5 meters to the nearest branch of
         appreciable size.
     --   Tree lengths that are reasonably straight and sound.
     There are many saw timer specifications and quality standards
in practice.  The development worker should start with local
customs and marketing opportunities, and then by working with the
community, improve standards and create new markets.
     Wood that is converted into paper products is known as pulpwood.
Not all tree species can be used for pulpwood, although the
yield of pulp is higher in the heavier woods.   Establishing a pulp
and paper mill requires guaranteed sources and quality of wood.
Such projects generally do not provide a market for small producers.
     Local demands for other wood products may also exist, and a
development worker should be aware of these production and marketing
possibilities.  Other wood products include bolts for handles,
mine timber, excelsior.
Are secondary and other by-products important?
     Oils, resins, gums and pharmaceutical materials can play a
role that is as important (if not more so) to local people than
sawtimber, pulpwood, and other more marketable wood products.
Also, many fruits and nuts from forest plants provide foodstuffs
for both local consumption and sale.
     The value of these secondary and other by-products of forests
is often overlooked in small-scale forestry activities.   Therefore,
a development worker, in consultation with local people,
should include the demand for these products in planning.
When should trees for wood products be harvested?
     Regardless of the wood product, both biological factors and
economic considerations dictate when trees should be harvested for
a particular wood product.
     From a biological standpoint, trees should not be cut until
they have grown at least to the minimum size required for product
utilization.  However, after attaining minimum size, the question
is what is the optimum or most advantageous size for harvest?
     Often, foresters are guided by average growth rates of
forests in determining when to harvest trees for wood products.
As mentioned in Chapter 4 of this manual, trees should not usually
be allowed to grow beyond the point of maximum average growth,
which is the age of maximum growth productivity.   Foresters call
this age the rotation age.

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     Biological factors, in addition to average growth rates, must
often be considered by a development worker when determining the
time to harvest trees for wood products.   These factors include:
     --   Pathological factors, which affect the growth of forests
         both in terms of mortality and the amount of defect in
         living trees.  As forests increase in age, they become
         increasingly subject to diseases such as heart-rotting
     --   Entomological factors, which affect growth of forests in
         a manner similar to pathological factors; also, entomological
         factors direct attention toward forest composition,
         age structure, and vigor.  Forests comprised of a
         single tree species, all of which are essentially the
         same size, are particularly susceptible to attack by
         destructive insects.  In addition, as trees get older
         and decline in vigor, they become more susceptible to
     --   Silvicultural factors often influence decisions as to
         time of harvesting.  Among the more important silvicultural
         factors are seed production characteristics,
         methods of obtaining regeneration, competition from less
         desirable tree species, and maintenance of desirable
         soil conditions.
     Economic considerations also help determine when to harvest
trees for wood products.  For example, if the decision is based
solely on market factors, the time to harvest is when profit is
maximized.  Profit is maximized when returns generated from harvesting
wood and selling a wood product minus costs incurred in
harvesting and processing the wood, are the greatest.   The age at
which profit is maximized is often less than the rotation age
determined through biological considerations.
     Other factors that one may need to consider in deciding when
to harvest trees for a particular wood product include:
     --   Local harvesting techniques, which could limit the
         handling of large tree lengths.
     --   Available manpower, which could restrict the extent of a
         harvesting operation.
     --   Existing market outlets, which dictate the kind of wood
         required for wood products and affect demand on particular
         kinds of trees.
     In general, the time when trees should be harvested for wood
products is quite variable.  Rotations of 8 to 12 years, for
example, can be prescribed for fuelwood plantations in arid
regions; on the other hand, rotations approaching 100 years are
often followed in more temperate forests set aside for saw timber
production.  Rotation ages are unknown in many tropical forest
ecosystems, such as mangrove.
Can trees for wood products be harvested without environmental
     Serious environmental consequences result when harvesting is
done without regard for other potential forest uses.   Many desirable
environmental effects can be achieved, however, through a
well-planned harvesting operation that is conducted correctly.
     To plan an environmentally sound small-scale harvesting
operation, in which wood products are obtained with minimum damage
to the environment, the development worker should recognize that
forests may also serve other purposes such as soil protection and
water production, grazing by domestic animals, wildlife habitat,
and recreational activities.
Soil Protection and Water Production
     Harvesting of wood products may have to be curtailed or
modified when soils are in such a critical position that they
require a forest cover to hold them in place.   In such situations,
the value of protection is usually greater than the use of trees
for wood products.
     Similarly, if substantial erosion will develop as a result of
harvesting operations, subsequent costs of stabilizing the soils
could make harvesting trees for wood products excessively expensive.
Again, harvesting may have to be restricted to prevent
environmental damage.
     In many forest ecosystems throughout the world, it has been
demonstrated that water production from upstream watersheds can be
affected by forestry practices.   In  certain situations, water
yields are increased after the removal of forest cover, with the
increase attributed to a decrease in evapotranspiration.  The
increased water, in turn, can be beneficial to people living in
areas of limited water supplies.
     Uncontrolled removal of forest cover can also increase peak
water flows in streams (especially following major storm events),
causing the flooding of valuable downstream lands.   In addition,
these large volumes of water frequently accelerate erosion processes
and carry increased sediment loads.

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     Therefore, it is important that harvesting operations be
carefully planned when soil protection and water production goals
are included in the project.   To obtain a proper balance:
     --   Forego harvesting trees for wood products on sites where
         a forest cover is necessary to hold soils in place, or
         where the removal of the forest cover will result in
         harmful erosion.  (Quite often, so-called "protection
         forests" are found on steep slopes or in such inaccessible
         places that harvesting is very difficult.)
     --   Take care to minimize detrimental impacts on soils when
         it does become necessary to harvest trees for wood
         products on the above sites; this can be accomplished by
         harvesting only when soils are relatively stable and not
         subject to erosion (either by wind action or by the
         movement of water); by using light equipment to pull
         tree lengths to a loading point; and by imposing practices
         to remove debris left after harvesting that minimize
         the disturbance to soil surface.
     --   Harvest trees for wood products as well as increase
         water production by exercising good forestry practices.
         Keep in mind that forests can be managed to reduce
         evapotranspiration, thereby increasing water yields;
         this can be accomplished by a reduction in forest densities,
         converting from a forest cover type to an herbaceous
         cover type (grasses, forbs, or shrubs) that uses
         less water, or by a combination of both.
     --   Do not remove all of the forest cover from extensive
         areas (particularly those on steep slopes with shallow
         soils), especially if downstream lands are subject to
         flooding.  Also, leave some forest cover in areas subject
         to wind exposure.
Grazing by Domestic Animals
     As mentioned in Chapter 6 of this manual, growing trees for
wood products and grazing by domestic animals can occur together
in many forest ecosystems.  In these situations, it can be advantageous
to consider possible benefits from both uses.
     Grazing may have to be eliminated (or at least restricted)
during actual harvesting operations, particularly in environments
with unstable soils that are subject to erosion.   If not curtailed,
the combined impact of harvesting trees for wood products
and continued grazing by domestic animals can result in serious
environmental damage.
     Also, it may become necessary to limit grazing during the
period immediately following a harvesting operation, if the area
is to be reforested by planting seeds or seedlings soon after
harvesting.  Once the trees have become well established and
beyond the reach of animals, controlled grazing can usually be
Wildlife Habitat
     Another possible use of forests compatible with growing trees
for wood products is wildlife production, whether or not for food.
As trees grow in size, more shade is cast onto the ground-cover,
altering plant species composition and density.   With changes in
ground-cover conditions, wildlife populations often change in kind
and amount.
     By harvesting trees for wood products with an eye toward
specific food and cover requirements for wildlife, desired game
and non-game habitats can be maintained or created.   For example,
careful planning and execution of harvesting operations, according
to good forestry practices, creates multiple edges and otherwise
increases diversity in forests which, in turn, can increase
the abundance of game and non-game animals.
Recreational Activities
     Certain areas, depending upon their natural qualities, should
not be disturbed.  As long as harvesting operations are in accordance
with good forestry practices, however, recreational activities
will probably not be jeopardized.   Opening up roads and, if
necessary, installing bridges to remove wood products can enhance
recreational opportunities but may also lead to increased colonization
by subsistence farmers.
What alternatives exist?
     Forest owners who raise trees for wood products do so because
they expect returns in excess of expenditures of money, time, and
effort necessary to grow the trees.   When returns are large, the
owner is usually interested in growing more trees and in maintaining
the forest in a productive condition.   However, if returns are
small (or if there are no returns at all), the owner may decide to
abandon the commercial forestry enterprise altogether.
     Wood products are often considered to be a principal operation
in forestry.  Therefore, the value of the trees is often
realized only when they are harvested.   For commercial projects
such as these, there is no real alternative.   But, as discussed in
Chapter 6 of this manual, the development worker and the local
people must keep in mind that forests should be managed for the
most beneficial combination of present and future uses, including
both tangible uses (such as deriving wealth from the selling of
wood products) and intangible uses (including soil protection,
water production, and wildlife habitat).
A fuelwood plantation program implemented by the Government of
India was spared the resentment and sabotage that afflicted many
other programs because it took the local farmers into account.  It
educated the people about the need for leaving the plantations
intact, appointed them "guardians of the forests" and employed
them in various positions as part of the project.   Not only did
the local people leave the new plantations unmolested, but they
guarded them from other poachers.
Why is fuelwood management important?
     Throughout the world, demands for fuelwood are increasing.
Many households and even whole communities in Third World countries
are entirely dependent upon wood for cooking and heating.
     With increasing demands for fuelwood, both natural and man-made
forests are often subjected to environmentally unsound harvesting
practices, including complete deforestation.   Frequent and
continuous harvesting of fuelwood and other forest biomass for
energy poses dangers of soil compaction, soil erosion, and nutrient
and organic material depletion.   Environmental consequences of
these dangers include dislodging of plant, animal, and human
populations, degradation of soils and site productivities, and
reduction of genetic diversities of native species.
     Over time, it is likely that even more people will become
dependent on fuelwood for energy.   If properly managed, use of
woody materials as energy, has obvious advantages:   a dependable
and renewable supply of energy; an even spread of developmental
activities through reforestation of marginal lands; and the
generation of employment opportunities in rural areas which are
invariably closer to forests.
     The world stands to gain from the use of fuelwood and other
forest biomass for energy, necessitating environmentally sound
What is the heat content of wood?
     The heat content of wood is proportional to the density (or
weight per unit of volume) of wood.   Laboratory tests have shown
that the heat content of a kilogram of wood, regardless of the
tree species, is nearly 21,000 kilojoules.   A joule is a unit of
energy approximately equal to 0.24 of a small calorie, the latter
being the amount of heat required at a pressure of one atmosphere
to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius.
     With the information outlined in the diagram on the following
page, the heat content of a cubic meter of wood can be estimated.
How are energy input and output relationships used in planning?
     Converting wood energy for human use also requires an energy
input, the latter being a human effort or the use of other fuels.
In an energy balance calculation, this energy input should be
subtracted from the total energy to determine the energy gain
through wood utilization.
     Some forest ecosystems require energy input only at the time
of fuelwood harvesting and during its transportation to the point
of use.   Other forest ecosystems require a continuous energy input
from the beginning to the end of a rotation; additional energy is
also needed in harvesting, transporting, and (if necessary) processing
the crop.

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     To plan an environmentally
sound small-scale
fuelwood management program,
and a program that
produces a net energy
gain, a development worker
and the local people
should recognize the relative
advantages and disadvantages
associated with
fuelwood management in
different kinds of forests.

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Natural Forests
     A Natural Forest
Natural forests usually
have a mixture of native
tree species and ages over
a relatively large area.
In terms of producing
woody materials for
energy, these forests have
several advantages:
     --   Humans need invest no energy in the establishment of the
         forest, since the forest regenerates itself naturally.
     --   Less energy is usually needed to maintain the forest in
         an acceptable growing condition.
     --   Net energy production in these forests can be quite
         high, particularly in young stands.

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     Disadvantages of managing
natural forests of
a multiple tree species
are well known, and include
the facts that:
-- Little information is
available to describe
overall growth rates.
-- Forest management is
relatively complex, and
techniques are only partially
-- Harvesting wood for
wood products, including
fuelwood, is frequently
-- Reproduction of shade-intolerant
trees, if desired,
can present a
     A major energy investment from human sources occurs at the
end of a rotation, primarily for harvesting, transporting, and
processing the crop.
Man-Made Forests
     Man-made forests usually consist of an age sequence of one-aged
blocks of a single tree species, often planted with uniform
spacing.  As a source of fuelwood and biomass for energy, these
forests seem to be an attractive proposition because:
     --   Management can be prescribed relatively precisely and be
         carried out by skilled workers.
     --   Growth over a rotation can be forecasted relatively
         accurately, and the rotation length can be adjusted to
         give maximum or optimum production to meet specified
         energy needs.
     --   Net energy production is relatively large (larger than
         for natural forests in many situations).
     --   Management and utilization can be mechanized more easily
         than in natural forests
     --   Management of man-made forests, particularly in
         temperate zones, is founded on a long history of
         research.  There is a growing body of information on
         management of arid forest lands and tropical rain
     Questions about the use of man-made forests as a source of
energy arise from the following concerns.
     --   They can present a greater risk of fire, insects and
         disease,  and loss of soil fertility.
     --   Aesthetic, wildlife, and recreational values may be
     --   Quite often, there is a heavy investment of financial
         resources and energy in establishment and maintenance.
     --   Once planted, options for alternative land and natural
         resource uses are restricted.
     A major investment of energy from human sources is required
for rotation, and to harvest, transport, and process the crop.
     As discussed in Chapter 9 of this manual, growing of trees in
conjunction with production of agricultural crops and, at times,
with grazing by domestic livestock is called agro-forestry.  Trees
grown within many agro-forestry systems can be utilized as fuelwood.
Advantages of agro-forestry in fuelwood management are:
     --   Tree species are either self-regenerating or readily
         available for planting.
     --   Maintenance and protection costs are usually minimal.
     --   Energy output is profitable at the level of the village,
         even for the farmer.
     --   No major capital investments are needed.
     --   Transportation costs are minimal.
     There are also disadvantages:
     --   Planting trees in conjunction with agricultural crops
         may reduce the yield and quality of both crops, in some
     --   Soil fertility may be reduced, particularly in "slash-and-burn"
Which trees should be grown?
     As mentioned in Chapter 4 of this manual, a development
worker may not have a choice in the tree species which will be
grown, particularly in natural forests.   When a selection can be
made, however, there are desirable characteristics that should be
stressed for choosing tree species to grow for fuelwood.  However,
the question of what specific tree species should be grown can
best be answered on a local basis.   Some desirable characteristics
     --   Tree species with relatively high wood densities
         (meaning, high weights per unit volume) and energy
         yields should be favored whenever possible.
     --   A relatively short rotation period is often an objective
         of fuelwood management programs -- when this is so,
         selection of rapidly growing tree species (especially in
         the establishment and initial growth stages) should be
     --   Production of wood for energy is sometimes a by-product.
         With some species of prosopis, for example, branches are
         harvested for firewood although the trees are used to
         provide live fencing.
     Also, as mentioned in Chapter 4 of this manual, if a tree
species is to be introduced, in this case for fuelwood, it is
important to test its suitability before making a commitment to a
large scale planting.
How does fuelwood management affect the environment?
     Effects on the environment from harvesting fuelwood (specifically,
a total exploitation of forests for energy purposes) are
essentially the same as those resulting from a total forest removal
for saw timber, pulpwood, or other wood products.   What follows
is a brief discussion of some of the more important environmental
impacts which might be expected when natural and man-made forests
are intensively harvested for fuel, and proper management is
Natural Forests
     Removal of trees and dead organic materials for fuel also
removes nutrients from a site, withdraws food from soil microorganisms
upon which the nutrient cycle depends, and reduces the
productivity of soils.  Other consequences may be increased soil
compaction, loss of soil porosity, an increase in erosion, leaching
and nutrient loss, and a reduction (or even complete suppression)
of natural regeneration.  Intensive gathering of fuelwood
and other forest biomass for cooking and heating may result in a
loss of nutrient capital and, therefore, a loss of productive
capacity.  Whenever possible, a balance should be achieved between
a demand for fuelwood and the need to maintain site productivity.

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     Removal of dead organic materials from a forest floor (such
as residues from harvesting other wood products) is often a practice
in areas of high fuelwood use and may result in much harsher
climates near the ground.  Removal of these materials can increase
solar radiation and re-radiation, cause extreme temperatures,
result in a drier soil surface, and reduce the subsequent accumulation
of biomass.
     It should be mentioned, however, that by not removing at
least some of the large amounts of residues of harvesting operations,
these materials will become fuels for wildfires.   Here,
controlled removal and use of residues for energy can have desirable
     Removal of forest cover by intensively harvesting fuelwood
can result in destruction of habitats for certain wildlife species,
causing many of these species to migrate to other areas.
Damage is greater where forests are cleared, although even where
selective cutting is practiced, wildlife species are adversely
     Again, selective, as well as clearcut harvesting for wood
products often results in accumulations of residues that may
discourage regeneration and make forest management for high quality
wood products more difficult.   Regeneration of forests, both
naturally and artificially, can be facilitated by the removal of
these residues for energy use.

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     Removal of residues of harvesting operations can improve
local acceptance of cut areas, since regeneration occurs sooner
and use of forests for many other purposes is established more
quickly after cutting.  Clearcut areas may be marginally more
acceptable if residues are removed than otherwise.
     The quality of regeneration may be improved by removal of
unmerchantable, small, and otherwise defective trees for energy
use, provided that suitable seed sources are available and planting
is undertaken.
     When weeding and thinning are practiced to improve the quality
and the condition for growth of the remaining trees, use of the
cut trees for energy is often a custom.   In general, finding a use
for weedings and thinnings can make this practice more attractive.
Man-Made Forests
     In many Third World countries, man-made forests that are
maintained for continued fuelwood production are probably desirable.
Many of the environmental impacts that have already been
discussed with respect to the exploitation of natural forests are
applicable to short rotations of man-made forests, but often with
greater intensity (such as 10 to 20 years).
     Short rotation tree crops, such as those undertaken in fuelwood
management, provide a quickly recurring harvest of biomass
devoid of aesthetic and organic benefits associated with natural
forests.  However, by satisfying urgent needs for fuelwood, manmade
forests can furnish a safety valve against local pressures to
exploit natural forests in energy-short societies.
Can fuelwood management be integrated with other forestry activities?
     It is entirely possible, and in many instances quite appropriate,
to integrate fuelwood management with other forestry activities.
The development worker should encourage such an integration
whenever feasible.  However, in encouraging integration, it
is important to consider the following points.
     --   Identify, disseminate, and apply existing knowledge of
         the management and use of forests (both natural and man-made)
         for sustained and maximum energy yields, with
         consideration given to environmental effects, such as
         prevention of soil erosion in the tropics and control of
         desertification in arid and semi-arid zones.
     --   Take into account the most important social and economic
         impacts, including the problem of increasing distances
         required to secure domestic fuels.
     --   Develop new silvicultural and forest management systems
         to maximize energy yields within the framework of
         multiple-use.  The most promising options appear to be
         short rotation forestry, whole tree utilization, growing
         coppice forests (in which renewal of a newly cutover
         area depends primarily on vegetative reproduction like
         sprouting), and intermixing of so-called high energy
         crops (such as sugar cane) with tree species.
     --   Encourage local (particularly rural) communities to
         accept new forest management practices and technologies.
         There is an indispensable need to bridge the gap between
         theoretical insight and practice.  Social and cultural
         understanding is a key element.  Coupled with environmental
         education, appreciation of local practices can
         lead to implementation of effective forest management
         and use.
                     AGRO-FORESTRY PROJECTS
With problems of deforestation in mind, and with an appreciation
of Panama's needs for fuelwood and new agricultural lands, the
Agency for International Development (AID) of the United States
mounted a carefully planned and coordinated program of agro-forestry,
forest resources, and agriculture.   This integrated
program has been considered one of AID's most successful environmentally-sound
development of projects, as it relates directly to
the needs of local people.
What is agro-forestry?
     The forest ecosystems of the world, and particularly the
Third World, are being subjected to ever increasing pressure by
subsistence farmers and herders.   Agro-forestry offers a means of
bringing the activities of rural people into greater harmony with
the forest environment by developing a complementary association
between trees and agricultural crops.
     Agro-forestry is the integration of forestry and agriculture.
It combines growing trees with production of agricultural crops
and, in some agro-forestry systems, grazing by domestic livestock
simultaneously or sequentially on the same unit of land.  The
objective of agro-forestry is to create sustainable land management
strategies which increase the overall yields of the land, and
which are also compatible with the environment and local cultural
     Properly applied, agro-forestry is a system that is both
productive and environmentally sound and it has the potential not
only to increase food, fuel, and income for farmers or herders on
marginal lands, but also to help stop destruction of the world's
forests lands.
Is there a general agro-forestry system?
     There is no universal agro-forestry system.  Each set of
conditions found in a particular forest ecosystem require a different
agro-forestry system.  Often, more than one agro-forestry
system can be applied to any single set of conditions.
     Some of the many agro-forestry systems are listed below:
     --   Agri-silviculture systems -- the management of land for
         the production of agricultural crops and forest products.
     --   Silvo-pastoral systems -- the management of forests for
         the production of wood, as well as for raising domestic
     --   Agro-silvo-pastoral systems -- the management of land
         for the production of agricultural crops, forest products,
         and domestic animals.
     --   Multi-purpose forest tree production systems -- the
         regeneration and management of forest tree species for
         wood, leaves, and quite often, fruits that are suitable
         for food and/or fodder.
     Primitive agro-forestry has been practiced by forest dwellers
for thousands of years.  It is only recently that scientific
attention has been focused on these practices.   This has occurred
because forest ecosystems are being heavily impacted by ever
increasing populations and because of a realization that western
agricultural methods are usually inappropriate.
     Ideally, an agro-forestry landscape would be dominated by
trees.  Trees would be in woodlots, in the middle of agricultural
plots, dotted on pastures, or in rows on the perimeters of fields
to serve as fences and wind-breaks.   With such a system, a farmer
could produce his energy needs, building and fencing materials, as
well as improving the soil fertility, fodder, and food supply.
Wildlife would be sustained to supply extra protein.   A surplus
for market might even be produced.
Below are some case examples of agro-forestry systems:
--  In Indonesia, the state forest corporation has a program
    for developing forests, not only as providers of wood
    and protectors of the environment, but as sources of
    food, medicinal herbs, resin, and silk.  This system
    also involves growing rice between young tree plants; it
    has more than doubled paddy production within two years.
--  Bangladesh has a pilot
    scheme underway to
    settle 300 families on 600
    hectares to grow bamboo
    and practice horticulture.
--  In the highlands of
    Colombia, cattle are
    grazed on Kikuyu grass
    under alder plantations.
    Alder roots fix nitrogen
    in the soil which increases
    forage yields.
--  It was found in Senegal
    that millet yields (an
    important grain staple),
    when grown under nitrogen
    fixing Acacia trees, were
    increased as much as 250
    percent and were 350 percent
    higher in protein.

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--  Farmers in Central America imitate the structure and
    diversity of tropical forests by planting a variety of
    crops with different growth habits.  Plots as small as
    0.1-hectare may contain a dozen or more species, each
    with a different form:  coconut or papaya with a lower
    layer of citrus, a shrub layer of coffee or cacao, tall
    and low annuals such as corn and beans, and finally a
    spreading ground cover of squash.
--  New Zealand sheep ranchers have found that their animals
    are able to maintain their body temperatures with less
    energy loss in the modified climate of pastures in open
    tree stands.   The combined production of timber and
    sheep provides a greater net profit than does either
    forests or pasture alone.
    Although there may be social, economic, and physical constraints
on the proper development of a forest ecosystem, with
imagination and careful study, the potential benefits of agro-forestry
can be great.
What are the environmental benefits of agro-forestry projects?
     Among the environmental benefits of many agro-forestry
systems are:
     --   Recycling of nutrients by trees when their leaves,
         flowers, fruit, and branches fall to the ground and
         decompose.  This addition of biomass also provides mulch
         which can reduce tillage and lower evaporation rates.
     --   Tapping of moisture and nutrients by trees at depths not
         reached by agricultural crops or pasture plants.
     --   The ability of trees to more efficiently extract and
         recycle nutrients from soil through the  activities of
         mycorrhizae (the structure
         formed when a beneficial
         fungus invades a tree
         root, generally improving
         the roots ability to function).
         ability of some tree-root
         mycorrhizae can also be of
         advantage in providing the
         essential nutrients to
         associated agricultural
         crops.   Most legumes and
         the plants of some other
         families fix nitrogen from
         the air in a form available
         for plant use.

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     --   Protection against erosion
         by the perennial
         roots of trees.  Tree
         roots can also improve soil permeability by favoring the
         formation of stable aggregates and by penetrating tight
         soils and some types of hardpans.
     --   Improvement in the quantity and diversity of wildlife by
         providing a  greater variety of ecological niches.
         Predators of harmful insects and rodents are
         particularly desirable.
     --   The provision of support for some types of climbing
         crops (black pepper, for example).
     --   An increase in diversity and spatial arrangement of
         plant species which can sometimes deter insect
     --   Manipulation of light by pruning tree crowns to control
         flowering or fruiting of associated  crops and of the
         trees themselves.
     --   Modification of a microclimate favorable to reducing
         temperature extremes, raising humidity, lowering wind
         velocities, and reducing rainfall energies.
     --   An approximation of natural ecological systems that more
         effectively use vertical space and capture solar energy
         more efficiently.
What are the social and economic benefits of agro-forests?
     A major problem facing subsistence farmers and herders in
many Third World countries is obtaining a steady supply of food or
income throughout the year, as agriculture only produces at irregular
harvesting intervals.  Conventional forestry practices are
usually unattractive to farmers because of problems of cash flow
and the long investment period.   Agro-forestry offers opportunities
for subsistence farmers and herders to diversify production
of wood and non-wood products to maintain regular employment and
income during periods between harvests of agricultural crops.
     There is considerable scope in designing agro-forestry systems
with high productivity by utilizing plant and/or animal
species most acceptable to local people.   Specific social and
economic benefits include:
     --   Economic insurance provided by the store of saleable
     --   Lessening of the danger of catastrophic losses that can
         occur with monocultures which are dependent upon the
         vagaries of climate, markets, pest outbreaks, and the
         availability of fertilizer, machine parts and
     --   Direct economic benefits of fuelwood, fence posts,
         poles, sawlogs, fruits, fodder, honey, medicinal products,
         and other forest products, without having to
         transport or buy them from other sources.
     --   The presence of trees which usually reduces weeding
     --   Use of trees to mark property boundaries, and sometimes
         to serve as shelterbelts (see Chapter 10 of this manual)
         or as a guard against land usurpation.
     --   Increased opportunity to move from destructive land uses
         which return profits over the short term to environmentally
         sound practices with long-term benefits without
         diminishing productivity.
     --   Early reduction of the economic investment of establishing
         tree crops by the proceeds of thinning and tree
         crown manipulation to produce fodder, fence posts, and
What problems might arise in developing agro-forestry projects?
     An aim of a small-scale agro-forestry project is to develop a
desirable replacement that at least matches the productivity of
any existing or alternative system.   There are some potential
disadvantages that should be considered in planning an agro-forestry
project for a specific area.
Environmental Considerations
     --   Shading by tree crowns can lower the yields and quality
         of associated agricultural crops beneath the trees.
     --   Competition between trees and associated crops for
         nutrients and water can reduce production of either or
         both crops.
     --   Competition for space both below and above ground can
         reduce overall yields.
     --   Tree harvesting can cause mechanical damage to associated
     --   The presence of trees can make mechanization or tilling
         by hand difficult.
     --   The moisture content of the air layer at the level of
         the associated agricultural crops may be increased and
         favor fungal and bacterial diseases.
     --   Trees take up and store nutrients over long periods of
         time.   There can be a loss of nutrients from site when
         the trees are harvested.
     --   Trees retain part of the precipitation in their crowns,
         which can be important in dry areas of light rains.  In
         some cases, stemflow can adversely redistribute precipitation
         from heavy rains.
     --   The environment of an agro-forestry system may promote
         populations of animal pests.
Social and Economic Considerations
     --   In some cases, economic yields of agro-forestry systems
         can be lower than for monocultures, even though the long
         term environmental advantage may be great.
     --   In other cases, the combined value of trees and
         associated agricultural crops may be eventually higher
         than that of a monoculture.  Where population densities
         are high in relation to land resources, survival often
         depends upon agricultural crop cycles.  There may be
         resistance by the rural poor to planting and managing
         trees whose products can only be realized over much
         longer cycles.
     --   Agro-forestry involves complex associations and, therefore,
         is less amenable to experimentation and analyses
         than are monocultures.  This problem is compounded by
         the scarcity of trained personnel for improving existing
         or developing new systems.
     --   There is generally a lack of knowledge of the potentials
         of agro-forestry on the part of decision makers.  Consequently,
         they may be reluctant to release funds for
         experimentation.  Without adequate experience, there is
         a danger of creating resentment at both the rural and
         decision making levels from unsuccesful projects based
         on insufficient information.  The development of projects
         based upon reports of "miracle trees" is an example.
What are the elements in planning environmentally sound agro-forestry
     Agro-forestry projects can vary in complexity from simple
schemes to improve the practice of shifting cultivation to intensely
managed intercropping systems.   An ultimate goal of agro-forestry
projects, however, is the conservation of the forest
ecosystem while satisfying the needs of local farmers for goods
and income.
     Planning any type of agro-forestry project will require:
     --   Surveys of needs, customs, and abilities of local
         people; these needs might also include the possibilities
         of developing cottage industries.
     --   Study of both existing and potential markets for future
     --   Examination of constraints of economics, infrastructure,
         and the organization of local community working groups.
     --   Decisions on which agro-forestry systems would be most
         appropriate for local community needs, the ecological
         setting, and existing markets.
     --   Selection of management techniques, including planting
         and harvesting schedules, to maximize yields of both
         trees and farm crops.
     --   Provisions for monitoring production and changes in soil
         fertility; this information should be used as feedback
         to improve the system.
     For intercropping (agro-forestry systems designed for a mixture
of trees and farm crops), careful consideration must be given
to the following:

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     --   Optimum mixtures and
         spacing patterns of trees
         and farm crops, which maximize
         the production of
         both.   (Particular care
         should be given to possible
         complementary and conflicting
         between species.)
     --   Foliage characteristics and leaf fall of the various
         species, and their influence on competition
         for solar energy and nutrients.
     --   Shade tolerance of agricultural species and the
         effect of forest species on energy levels at the
         forest floor.
     It is important to keep in mind that a agro-forestry project
depends not only on the quantity and quality of joint products
that may be produced, but also largely upon the socio-political
strategies built into the project.
In the 1970's when the drought began in Mauritania, nomads settled
on the green dunes of Nouakchott.   They naturally chopped down the
surrounding Euphorbia bushes and Mesquite trees.   As the number of
people increased, the remaining vegetation was trampled.  Without
trees, and as the drought became worse, the dunes became destabilized
and the sands began to shift.   In response to this situation,
a PVO funded a project to replant indigenous Euphorbia
bushes and Mesquite trees as wind-breaks.   These plant species
survived remarkably well, considering the shortage of rainfall.
What are shelterbelts and wind-breaks?
     Shelterbelts are barriers of live vegetation, usually trees
and shrubs, planted in one or more rows at right angles to the
direction of prevailing wind,.   Their primary purpose is to reduce
the velocity of winds across agricultural crops and pastures or
around buildings and livestock enclosures.
     Shelterbelts have been used successfully in temperate
climates since the middle of the 19th century.   They have been
effective in improving the microclimate, reducing wind erosion,
increasing crop and livestock yields, reducing heating costs, and
providing fodder, fuelwood, and other wood products.   It has also
been demonstrated that shelterbelts can be even more effective
under the harsher conditions of arid lands.   On these lands, the
value of thrifty tree species may be even higher than that of
other products of land use.
     A distinction is often made between shelterbelts and wind-breaks,
but there is no consistent agreement on differences in the
terms.  The term shelterbelt is most often used to describe wind
barriers around agricultural fields and pastures, while the term
wind-breaks is commonly used to describe wind barriers around
buildings, gardens, and orchards.   Both shelterbelts and wind-breaks
serve the same purpose and the terms are often used synonymously,
as they are in this manual.
     Planning a shelterbelt operation requires a development
worker to consult with local inhabitants to determine goals of
establishment and management, and to provide a foundation for
long-term development.
How do shelterbelts function?
     When wind approaches a shelterbelt, its velocity is moderated
on both sides of the shelter.   When the shelterbelt is dense and
not very permeable to wind, most of the flow is deflected upward.
Pressure on the down-wind side is reduced, causing turbulence
which greatly reduces velocity, but only for a relatively short
distance down-wind of the shelter.
     If a shelter is more permeable to wind, the wind flow is
divided -- part of the flow is deflected upward (as with the less
permeable belt) and part penetrates through the belt.   There is
usually less turbulence and the reduction in velocity is felt a
greater distance down-mind.
     For both permeable and impermeable shelterbelts, the effect
on wind velocity is related to the height (H) of the tallest trees
in the belt and is expressed in multiples of this height.  Normally,
the effect is felt at distances of 20H to 40H.   Therefore,
shelterbelts should:
     --   Be permeable with a vertical crown density of about 50
         to 60 percent, but no greater than 80 percent.
     --   Have the greatest height possible for tree species
         adaptable to the area.
     --   Have a suitable width and structure.

49p78.gif (540x540)

How should shelterbelts be structured?
     Shelterbelts are most often planned so that they will develop
a triangular cross section, with the highest trees in the center
flanked by shorter trees and shrubs on the edges.   However, rectangular
cross sections are quite adequate for shelterbelts of two
to four rows, provided that at least two of the rows have foliage
down to the ground.
     A decision on how wide a shelterbelt should be depends upon
the amount of land which can be economically devoted to planting,
and the minimum number of the rows required to maintain the desired
permeability.  Actually, narrow shelterbelts of moderate
density are just as effective as wide belts.
     Shelterbelts of five rows are generally efficient in both
humid and dry climates, and they are not difficult to maintain.
However, in considering economic worth, account must be taken of
possible  multiple-uses of the shelterbelt.  For example, wood
products, shelter for animals and bees, food and cover for wildlife,
and fodder for livestock may be important considerations in
addition to wind protection.   For these considerations, shelterbelts
of more than five rows may be desirable.   One-row shelterbelts
are risky since holes may develop and funnel the winds.
     Spacing within rows depends in part upon the tree and shrub
species planted and the type of management to be followed once the
plants mature.  In general, seedlings are planted close together
to obtain early closure.  As the plants mature, every other one is
removed. Final spacing within rows should be from 1 to 1.5 meters
for shrubs and 2 to 3 meters for trees.   Spacing between rows
should range from 3 to 4 meters to allow for subsequent cultivation.

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What patterns should be
     Design of shelterbelt
systems largely depends
upon the velocities and
directions of local winds.
If there are definite prevailing
winds, a series of
parallel shelterbelts
should be established,
preferably at right angles
but no less than 45 degrees
to the direction of
the winds.  More often,
winds blow from various
directions which would require a checkerboard pattern.   In some
cases, dense shelterbelts may be planted across the major wind
directions and less dense belts planted across minor directions.
     In irrigated areas, shelterbelts should be located mainly
along irrigation channels.  In rolling topography, shelterbelts
are more effective if planted along ridgetops.   Therefore, a
compromise is sometimes necessary to take into account both the
direction of winds and the cultural and physical characteristics
of the area.
     For sheltering livestock, a compact shelterbelt in a U, V, X
or square configuration can be used.   Shelterbelts around buildings
are often planted in L-shaped pattern across the prevailing

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Shelterbelt Planting in an L-shaped Pattern
     Shelterbelts should be planted a suitable distance from
buildings to prevent excessive snow accumulation due to downdrafts
on the leeward side of the shelter in cold climates.   In the case
of permeable shelterbelts, snow accumulations extend from about
10H to 25H.
     In hot and dry climates, dense shelterbelts placed too close
to buildings may result in oppressive heat.   These belts should be
permeable and located at least 30 to 45 meters (but no greater
than 90 to 120 meters) from the buildings.
What spacing should be used between shelterbelts?
     Planning the spacing of shelterbelts depends upon site factors,
climatic patterns, and growth rates of the tree and shurb
species.  Normally, shelterbelts should be spaced at about 20
times the height of the tallest trees, particularly across the
major wind direction.  If a checkerboard pattern is used, shelterbelts
across minor wind directions may be spaced up to 60 times
the height.  Since height growth of arid land species is not great
(only 10 to 15 meters under irrigation), the best that one can
plan for in those areas is an average of 200 to 300 meters between
major shelterbelts.
What characteristics should the plant species have?
     Native and introduced three and shurb species which have
proven their adaptability to the soils and climate of the region
should be used in shelterbelt plantings.   In addition to the  
characteristics listed in Chapter 5 of this manual, plants selected
should have certain other characteristics, including:
     --   Resistance to the force of winds.
     --   Strong tap roots.   (Lateral rooted tree and shurb
         species will compete with fields and pastures they are
         supposed to protect).
     --   Dense, uniform crowns, thrifty growth, perennial
         foliage, and adequate height.
     --   Resistance to disease, and insects, and cold or heat.
     --   Value for wood or other products (such as forage).
     Although use of a single tree or shrub species simplifies
management, it is not often that one plant will have all of the
above attributes.  Often, two or more species will be required to
develop a shelterbelt that will provide adequate protection.  For
example, the low growth form of acacia makes it useful for planting
in the outer rows of shelterbelts in dry climates; the inner
rows may consist of tamarisk, casvania, and eucalyptus.   Single
plant species, particularly those that sprout after cutting (such
as eucalyptus), can sometimes be managed to provide full vertical
shelter by alternately cutting the outer rows of trees and allowing
the cut trees to complete the shelter.

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How are shelterbelts established?

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     The first step in
planning a shelterbelt
system involves identification
of the need for the
technique by local farmers.
Following need
identification, a commitment
to undertake such
a project should be accompanied
by training and formation of a community organization.
Cooperative efforts are essential to set goals, purchase or grow
planting stock, obtain equipment, organize work crews, and to
carry out management objectives.

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     Technical essentials
include site preparation,
careful handling of planting
stock from the nursery
to the planting site,
protection against fire
and grazing animals, and
cultivation after planting
at least several times
each season.  Source of
seed is, of course, equally
important in the growing of planting stock for any locality.
Terracing and contour planting may be necessary in some areas.
Often, a soil-improving crop of legumes may be grown between the
rows of plantings in the belt for the first few years to foster
growth of the belt.

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     In dry climates, irrigation
after planting is
necessary.  The soil
should be well prepared
and a permanent source of
water should be assured.
A water transportation and
application system must be
planned.  The number of
waterings and the amount
of water applied depends
upon climate, species, and soil.   For example, in a sandy loam
area receiving 150 to 200 millimeters of rainfall with a dry
season of 8 months, about 6 applications of 10 liters for each
seedling is probably sufficient to assure survival.   In both dry
and humid climates, survival of 90 or 95 percent is considered
necessary for shelterbelts.

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     At least two cultivations
must be planned during the first
few years following establishment,
and at least one cultivation must
be made during the following two
or three years.  Heavier soil will
require more intensive cultivation.
Root pruning of some
species which have spreading root
systems, such as eucalyptus, must
also be planned.  These roots can
grow into adjacent fields and compete with crops.
How should shelterbelts be managed?
     Properly managed shelterbelts can yield products from thinnings,
sanitation cuts, prunings, and rotational cuts without
greatly reducing the barrier effects.   Indeed, cuttings are often
necessary to maintain the structure and vitality of the shelterbelt.
For example, to stimulate height growth and the formation
of straight stems, pruning of the lower branches early in the
development of the belt is advisable.   Coppicing trees will require
the greatest amount of pruning.   To stimulate diameter
growth, thinning can be required.   For some tree species, thinning
could be started during the fourth or fifth year.   Sanitary cuts
and thinnings will occasionally be necessary during the life of
the shelterbelt to remove dead, diseased, or insect-infested
     Rotational cuts will provide the greatest quantity of wood
products.  Each successive cutting can be dome so that at least
half of the rows are left standing.   Therefore, half of a five-row
shelterbelt can be cut; meanwhile, the other half should furnish
the necessary protection until the regrowth of the first cut
reaches the desired density.   It should be planned that the first
cut is done on the down-wind side at about half the normal rotation
age.  Starting with the second cut, a normal period of
rotation could be followed.  Replanting, of course, follows each
cut.  In the case of two-row shelterbelts, one row is cut and the
second is left standing.
     The cutting cycle for shelterbelts depends upon the growth
rate of the trees and shrubs.   However, a rough estimate for tree
species used for wood products is 15 to 20 years (roughly the same
as the rotation cycle).
What are the environmental effects of shelterbelts?
     The effects of shelterbelts are almost without exception
beneficial to the environment.   Major effects include:
     --   Lessened evaporation and transpiration, increased water
         available for plant use, and reduced water stress.
     --   Increased snow catch in cold climates and improved soil
         moisture relations.
     --   Decreased wind damage to plants and animals.
     --   Checked wind erosion and lessened sand movement and its
         abrasive action.
     --   Controlled air temperature by leveling out extreme
     --   Provision of organic material for soil handling and
     --   Provision of an aesthetic value in areas where trees are
     In arid regions, where water is limited and where shelterbelts
must be watered, favorable environmental effects must be
carefully weighed against the value of water.   Adverse environmental
effects can also occur if the trees harbor birds, insects or
disease organisms which are harmful to the crops.   Any symbiotic
relationship (in which two dissimilar organisms live together in
close association) between diseases of specific crops to be grown
and the alternate hosts of the diseases should be studied before
shelterbelt species are selected.
To improve the natural forest, the Government of Malaysia has
conducted a cooperative tree-planting program with local villagers.
As local people were hired to do the planting, they were
quite protective of the plantations.   As a result, poaching and
grazing damage have been minimal.
What is meant by reforestation and afforestation?
     The term reforestation is normally used when an area that
once supported forests is to be reforested; this includes areas
such as abandoned agricultural lands, bush lands, or areas already
forested but poorly stocked or stocked with inferior species that
should be replaced with more productive species.   The term afforestation
is generally applied to projects whose goal is to plant
areas previously devoid of trees.   Most often, the term is used
for forestry projects in arid regions.
     Actually, differences between the two terms are slight and
need not be belabored.  The term reforestation will be used in
this manual to mean planting treeless areas, changing the composition
of existing forests, or converting from other land uses to
environmentally sound forest production.
When is it important to plan reforestation projects?
     Throughout most of the Third World countries, native forests
have been greatly depleted, and in many cases, completely eradicated.
Plans for the reforestation of these areas cannot be made
too soon.  Forests are essential to the quality of life and, in
most cases, to life itself and the life support system.
     As the number of people living in these areas increases, the
quality of the land on which they must live simultaneously declines.
Unless solutions are implemented, the impact will be felt
not only locally but globally.   The consequences of not initiating
effective solutions immediately are accelerated soil loss and land
deterioration, environmental degradation, and further impoverishment
of the world population.
     As mentioned in Chapter 3 of this manual, if undisturbed for
a long time, forest ecosystems will evolve through successional
steps into a climax type.  Once established, no other tree species
can naturally invade and replace the climax, except if the type is
subjected to some external form of disturbance.   Forest succession
is one of the basic concepts of ecology.
     Practical implications of forest succession in tree planting
means that climax tree species cannot be grown successfully on
severely degraded sites; conversely, pioneer species, if planted
on good sites, will eventually give way to climax species.  This
principle is especially important in planning reforestation of
depleted sites.  The original vegetative cover of these sites has
been stripped and the topsoil is gone.   To attempt to reforest
with climax types may be difficult or impossible even though the
land may once have supported magnificent forests.   Conditions may
be so bad that the area will only support shrubs and other pioneer
plant species.  Reforestation might require planning a series of
successional vegetative stages to arrive at a desired forest
What environmental factors are important?
     In planning a reforestation project, forest successions
should be studied by a development worker -- this includes studies
of historical records and interviews with local inhabitants.  Physical
and climatic factors prevailing in the area can also be very
important.  Some that should be considered are:
     --   Soils -- texture, structure, depth, water holding capacity,
         and fertility as they may affect plant species
     --   Precipitation -- amount and distribution through the
         seasons and how they may affect planting and survival.
     --   Temperature -- seasonal fluctuations and extremes which
         may affect transport, storage, and planting of seedlings.
     --   Site factors -- aspect, slope, topography, and geology
         as they may affect plant species selection.
     --   Wind -- direction, velocity, and dryness as they may
         affect survival in certain areas.
     All factors that influence the water balance are critical for
survival and growth of every plant.   This is particularly true in
arid regions.  Attention should be given to lower valleys and
flats that receive runoff and soil materials from higher up, since
these sites may receive water several times the natural rainfall.
Therefore, these areas may have the potential for growing higher
value species than have the upland sites of the area to be
     Activities of man and his animals usually have the greatest
impact on a forest ecosystem and can be severe constraints on
reforestation.  Questions to ask in planning are:  Is fire now
being used in agriculture or for range improvement?   Are grazing
lands held in common and how heavy is land use?   What are the
foraging habits of grazing animals (browsers, bark eaters, and
grazers)?  Is it customary for the area to be reforested to support
herds of domestic livestock with a variety of food
     Answers to these and other questions may require control of
both human and animal activity, enforcement of rules limiting
access to the area to be reforested, and development of a fire
control program.
What tree species should be selected?
     In addition to the general criteria listed in Chapter 5 of
this manual, the choice of tree species to be planted should be
made on the basis of adaptability to the local environment, and
ability to meet the needs of local inhabitants.
     Generally, native species growing in the area and conforming
to local needs and traditions are the safest choice for reforestation.
However, there may be no native trees, or the native
species may not produce the products desired in some areas.  In
such instances, the possibilities of introducing tree species with
characteristics superior to those of native species should be
     Generally, introduced species should be used with a great
deal of caution until their performance has been demonstrated by
trials in the area.  Transfer of either native or introduced
species from one locality to another should be governed primarily
by similarity of climate and soil in the new area within the
natural range of the species.
     Erosion control is often used as justification for reforestation
projects.  Certainly, this is a worthy objective, but projects
can fail unless they also yield other products of direct
value to the local inhabitants.   Careful thought must be given by
a development worker to the properties of the wood and the growth
characteristics of the tree species which make them valuable to
local economies.
     When trees are grown for lumber, qualities such as
straightness, strength, and workability are desirable.   Posts and
poles require durability in addition to strength and straightness.
Fuelwood species should have a high caloric value and low water
content, and produce large volumes of wood.   Trees with dense wood
make the best charcoal.  Deciduous trees without spines and with
leaves high in nutrients (such as many legumes) make good forage
species.  If gum extraction is one potential use of the forest,
high yield species and varieties will, of course, be preferred.
     In certain cases, it is possible to select trees which will
serve several purposes, such as tall trees with flowers which will
attract bees, or good charcoal producing shrubs bearing essential
oils or leaves for fodder.  More often, two or more species will
be necessary to provide the products desired and to take advantage
of differences in planting sites within the area to be reforested.
What should be considered in obtaining planting stock?
     In undertaking a small -scale reforestation project, it is
safest to obtain seedlings from a permanent nursery in the region.
However, if the nursery is too far from the planting site or if
none exists, establishment of a small temporary nursery may be the
only alternative.  The closer the nursery is to the planting site,
the better.  Elaborate site preparation for such a nursery is not
required and temporary buildings as shelter will suffice.  Plans
for a dependable supply of water (preferably a gravity system) are
     Persons working at the nursery should have training.  At a
minimum, this should include a permanently employed overseer and
several assistants if only on a temporary basis.
     Unless it is planned to use bare root stock for reforestation,
the temporary nursery site need not be located on fertile
soils.  Instead, the seedlings can be grown in containers filled
with soil.  There are any number of containers which can be used.
These range from unfired, hand made clay pots to compartmentalized
styrofoam trays and individual containers made of peat (both of
which are produced commercially).   Bag or tube containers made of
inexpensive plastic film and filled with soil are very popular in
many parts of the world.  Growing seedlings in containers is labor
intensive, but great efficiency may not be an important consideration
for small scale operations.
     Plastic fiIm and
other types of containers
minimize damage to the
seedling and drying out of
the root system; they also
do not require temporary
storage facilities at the
planting site as do bare
root stock.  However, the
labor of transporting containerized
seedlings to
the planting site can be
great.  If flexible containers
are used, a source
of cohesive  (but not too
heavy), soil must be used.

49p91.gif (437x437)

Where should seeds be obtained?
     If it is necessary to establish a small nursery, the origin
of seed for the tree species to be planted is of utmost importance.
A source of high quality seeds must be found early in the
planning stages.  Failures have often occurred by using seed from
inferior trees or from trees which grow in unsuitable environments.
The following principles should be considered:
     --   Seed collection should be based on the similarity
         between the climate of the collection zone and the
         planting zone.
     --   If native species are to be used, collection should be
         limited to local seeds of known origin.  Generally, the
         safest choice should be seed trees within about 200
         kilometers distance and within 500 meters elevation of
         the planting site.
     --   In the case of introduced tree species, seeds should be
         collected under environmental conditions as similar as
         possible to those of the area to be reforested.  It is
         important when seeds are ordered from abroad to consider
         the exact geographic location of the source.  For
         example, the seeds of eucalyptus from one province in
         Australia may be more resistant to salinity than those
         from another origin.
     --   Seeds should not be collected from each tree in a forest
         stand, only from carefully selected, superior trees
         which are distinguished by such qualities as
         straightness, fast growth, and branching habit.
     Planning may require provisions for training local people in
seed collecting.  Once the seeds are collected, provision must be
made for extracting, cleaning, and drying.   Most tree species do
not produce seeds each year but have abundant seed years 2 to 5
years apart.  For that reason, plans should include storage
facilities.  Seeds of some species may require refrigeration.
Other species can be stored at room temperatures for extended
periods without losing viability.
What is necessary in planning site preparation?
     Site preparation will probably have to be considered in
reforestation.  In humid climates, preparation is usually minimal,
particularly on abandoned agricultural lands.   On brush lands, the
shrub species present must either be removed or subdued by cutting
and/or burning until the newly planted seedlings can become
established.  Where there are undesirable tree species, girdling
or cutting may have to precede planting.
     In dry climates, site preparation can be more complicated.
It may be necessary to consider massive treatments (such as deep
plowing or the construction of terraces) to hold the limited water
from precipitation.  Other less intense land treatments could
include furrows, trenches, pits, or berms constructed along contours.
In very dry areas, it may be necessary to plan water
harvesting systems in which runoff from a larger catchment area is
diverted onto a smaller area where trees are planted.
     On severely eroded land that is heavily gullied, whether in
humid or in dry climates, extensive site preparation may have to
be considered.  Soil conservation structures (including gully
plugs, rock dams, or temporary brush dams) may have to be planned.
In severe cases, preparation of these sites may have to precede
planting by several years.
     Use of grasses to help stabilize the site until trees become
established may be necessary.   Reforestation of these lands may
require careful planning from aerial photos, if available, or maps
to locate suitable points for control structures.   The structures
should then be designed to maintain the stability of the site
until the trees can take over.   In humid climates, the time required
may only be one or two growing seasons; in dry climates the
time may extend up to a decade.
Trees have been replanted on the Algerian slopes by a PVO in an
attempt to stop the incursion of the Sahara.   Algerian peasants
engaged in the project were furnished seedlings, and given wages
and food.  They were also educated about the need for reforestation
and involved in all stages of planting, terracing, and road
building.  Since Algeria is an oil exporting country, the need for
fuelwood is not as acute as in other places -- as a result, of the
100 million trees planted, about 80% survived.   Where local farmers
were involved, they protected the new plantations, and the
incidence of poaching was negligible.   In areas where local involvement
was slighted, hardly any trace of the project remains.
Are small-scale forestry projects not discussed important?
     Absolutely -- this manual cannot mention the full range of
small-scale forestry projects that could be considered for a given
locale.  Instead, examples of some of the more common projects
have been discussed.  It is important that development workers and
others interested in planning, implementation, or management of
these projects thoroughly explore all possibilities for creatively
using a particular forest ecosystem in the most beneficial manner.
     Regardless of the small-scale forestry project to be undertaken,
it is necessary to keep in mind the need to plan environmentally
sound projects that are responsive to the needs and well
being of local people.
Is additional information available?
     Yes -- depending upon the specific project being considered
and the particular forest ecosystem involved, additional reference
information may be available to assist development workers in
planning environmentally sound small-scale projects.   To this end,
the bibliography at the end of this manual could provide background
information for the initial stages of a planning process.
     The following short-form version of the CILSS/Club du Sahel
Ecologic Guidelines has been developed to meet the needs of development
workers at the community level.   The original version is
available at cost from the CODEL Office, Environment and Development
Program.  This paper is a response prepared by Fred R. Weber
as a result of discussions with PVOs at CODEL workshops on
Environment and Development.
     In its basic form, the guidelines presented will permit
analysis of proposed activities and a design that will minimize
negative impacts.  It is designed for small-scale projects under
$250, 000.  The Mini-Guidelines is being circulated to PVOs to
invite reaction and response.   It is hoped agencies will try out
the Mini-Guidelines in the field and report back on the experience.
Responses should be addressed to Mini-Guidelines, Environment
and Development Program, CODEL, 79 Madison Avenue, New York,
New York 10016.  All communications will be forwarded to Fred
     The general approach is the same as for the complete
CILSS/Club du Sahel Ecologic Guidelines.   Methods and procedure,
however, have been condensed in a form that is less time consuming
and can be carried out by project design personnel not formally
trained or experienced in environmental analysis.
Introduction to the Guidelines
     Begin with any project in the community development area:
wells construction, school gardens, poultry raising, village woodlots,
access roads, and so forth.  Any community activity will, in
one form or another, affect the environment somehow.   Especially
if "environment" is regarded in its broadest form, not only the
physical aspects are affected but also health, economics, social
and cultural components.
     The objective of this exercise is to try to predict as far as
possible, the various impacts the proposed activity will have in
both negative and positive terms.   A project normally is designed
with specific results in mind.   An attempt is made to provide
well-defined, "targeted" inputs to bring about some improvement
to the people in the field.  What is less clear is the nature and
extent of incidental consequences these activities might bring
about that are less desirable, in fact often adverse or negative.
     In reality, more often than not, the good will have to be
taken with some bad.  Choices often involve trade-offs.  The trick
then consists of developing a system where these trade-offs ultimately
are as favorable as  possible in terms of the people
     To identify areas where possible adverse effects may occur,
the basic questions that should always be asked, is:
  How Will Proposed Project Activities Affect_______________?
     If we insert in this question the components that together
make up the environment, we will get answers (and possible warning
flags) for those situations where otherwise negative consequences
"inadvertently" may result.
Explanation of Columns
1.   In the table on page 100, ask yourself the basic question for
     each of the 18 lines (described below) and assign the following
     values in Column 3.
     Very positive, clear and decisive positive impact         +2
     Some, but limited positive impact                         +1
     No effect, not applicable, no impact                       0
     Some definite, but limited negative impact                -1
      Very specific or extensive negative impact                -2
2.   A brief explanation of the factors in columns 1 and 2:
     Surface Water -- runoff:  peak and yields.   How does the
     project activity affect runoff?  How does it affect the peaks
     (flood discharges)?  How does it affect the amount of water
     that will flow (yield)?
     Groundwater -- Its quantity, recharge rates, etc.  Also, does
     the project alter its chemical composition?
     Vegetation -- Accent on natural vegetation.  Will natural
     cover be reduced (bad) or increased (good)?  How will natural
     regeneration be affected?  Will there be additional (or
     fewer) demands on trees, bushes, grass, etc.?
     Soils -- Will the project increase or drain soil fertility?
     Where land surfaces are affected by the project, is "optimal"
     land use affected favorably or adversely?  Will erosion be
     more or less likely?
     Other -- Basic questions dealing with improvement or deterioration
     of factors such as wildlife, fisheries, natural features.
     Also does the project follow some existing overall
     natural resource management plan?
     Food -- Will people have more food and/or a more complete
     Disease vectors -- A very important point and one that is
     often overlooked:  Will the project create more standing
     water?   Will the project increase (or create) fast flowing
     water?   How will it affect existing water courses?
     Population density -- How much will population density increase
     as a result of the activities?  What contamination
     conditions will be altered?  How?   Will more Health Care
     Services be required?
     Other -- Toxic chemical, exposure to animal borne diseases,
     Agricultural productivity -- Per capita food production
     (staples or cash crops), yields.
     Volume of good or services -- Will the project provide more
     goods (food, firewood, water, etc.) or less?
     Common resources -- (Water, pasture, trees, etc.)  Will the
     project require people to use more or less water, pastures,
     etc.?   Will it eliminate any of these resources now available?
     Will it restrict access to these resources?
     Project equitability -- How are benefits distributed?  Who
     will profit from these activities?  Special segments of the
     population?   How "fairly" will the benefits be shared.
     Government services, administration -- Will the project
     demand more work, "coverage" of government services?   Will it
     cause an additional load on the administration:  more people,
     recurrent costs, etc.?
     Education and training -- How will it affect existing education/training
     facilities?   Strain or support?   Or will it
     provide alternates?   What about traditional learning (bush
     schools, etc.)?
     Community Development -- Will it encourage it, or will it
     affect already on-going efforts?  If so, is this good or bad?
     Traditional land use -- Will it restrict existing use,
     harvesting, grazing patterns?  Many projects promote "better"
     land use but at the (social) cost of some one or some group
     being restricted from using land, vegetation, water the way
     they have been used to.
     Energy -- How will the project affect the demand for (or
     supply of) firewood?  Will it increase the dependency on
     fossil fuels?
3.   Column 4:    This is an arbitrary number based on experience.
4.   Column 5:    Choose an adjustment factor between 1.0 and 5.0
     depending on whether a large number of people and/or large
     areas are affected.  If a large segment of the population is
     affected (say:  over 1,000 people), use a factor of 2.5.  If
     1,000 hectares or more are involved, use 2.5 also.  If both
     large numbers of people and extensive area are affected,
     combine the two:  use up to 5.0.   Never use a factor less
     than 1.0.
5.   Compute the adjusted score by multiplying columns 3, 4 and 5.
     Enter result in column 6.  Make sure to carry positive and
     negative signs.
6.   In Column 7:  List all impacts that are positive.
7.   In Column 8:  List all impacts that are negative.
8.   Now take another look at Column 8.  Here you'll find a summary
     of the negative aspects of your proposed activity.  Beginning
     with the largest values (scores), determine what
     measures you can incorporate into your project, what alternate
     approaches can be followed to reduce these negative
     values, one by one.  This may not always be possible, but try
     to modify your plans so that the sum of all negative impacts
     will be as small as possible.  (Tabulate the new, improved
     scores in Column 10.)
     Modify, adjust, redesign your project so that the total of
all "negative impacts" is an small as possible.  This is the
essence of "ecologically sound project design."

49p100.gif (600x600)

     Selected references on topics presented in this manual are
listed below.  For convenience, references have been arbitrarily
grouped by categories.  However, in many instances, a particular
reference covers more than a single topic.
Guidelines for Project Evaluation.   1972.  United Nations Industrial
 Development Organization, Project Formulation and Evaluation
 Series No. 2.
Applied Communication in Developing Countries:   Ideas and
 Observations.   1973.  The Dag Hammarskjold Foundation.
Introduction to Planning Forestry Development.   1974.  FAO Forestry
 Series No. 7.
Project Appraisal and Planning for Developing Countries.  1974.
 Basic Books, Inc., New York.
Economic Analysis of Projects.   1975.  John Hopkins University
 Press, Baltimore.
From the Village to the Medium:   An Experience in Development
 Communication.   1976.  Communication Foundation for Asia.
Report on the FAO/SIDA Workshop on Forestry Development Planning
 for Countries of the Near East and South Asia, Dehra Dun, India,
 29 November--17 December 1976.  1977.   FAO Forestry Series No.
Development of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands:   Obstacles and Prospects.
 1977.   UNESCO, MAB Technical Notes No. 6.
Report on the FAO/SIDA Workshop on Forestry Development Planning
 for Countries of Southeast Asia, Manilla, Philippines, 16
 August--September 1976.  1977.   FAO Forestry Series No. 39.
Local Responses to Global Problems:   A Key to Meeting Basic Human
 Needs.   1978.  Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C.
Forestry:  Sector Policy Paper.  1978.   World Bank, New York.
Environmental Design Considerations for Rural Development Projects.
 1980.   U.S. Agency for International Development,
 Washington, D.C.
Forestry and the Environment
Ecological Guidelines for Development in Tropical Rain Forests.
 1977.   International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural
Mediterranean Forests and Maquis:   Ecology Conservation and Management.
 1977.   UNESCO.
Forest Influences:  An Introduction to Ecological Forestry.  1962,
 reprinted in 1978.  FAO.
Tropical Forest Ecosystems:  A State-of-Knowledge Report.  1978.
Man in His Working Environment.   1979.  International Labor Organization.
Planting for the Future:  Forestry for Human Needs.  1979.
 Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C.
Tropical Woodlands and Forest Ecosystems.  1980.  United Nations
 Environment Programme.
The Socio-Economic Effects of Forest Management on Lives of People
 Living in the Area:  The Case of Central American and Some Caribbean
 Countries.   1981.  Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion
 y Ensenanza, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Forestry Practices
Manual of Forestry Inventory with Special References to Mixed
 Tropical Forests.  1973.   FAO Forestry Series No. 3.
Logging and Log Transport in Tropical High Forest.   1974.  FAO
 Forestry Development Paper No. 18.
Tree Planting Practices in the African Savannas.   1974.  FAO
 Forestry Development Paper No. 19.
Forest Assessment, by Dammis Heinsdijk.   1975.  Centre for Agricultural
 Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen.
Report on the Second FAO/SIDA Training Course on Forestry Inventory,
 Ibadan, Nigeria, 12 August--September 1974.  1975.   FAO
 Forestry Series No. 14.
The Methodology of Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources:
 Report on a Pilot Study.  1975.   FAO.
Forest Fire Control.  1953, reprinted in 1978.  FAO.
Forest Influences:  An Introduction to Ecological Forestry.  1962,
 reprinted in 1978.  FAO.
Forestry for Local Community Development.   1978.  FAO Forestry
 Paper No. 7.
Introduction to Forest Genetics.   1976.  Jonathan W. Wright.  New
 York:   Academic Press.
Institutional Limitations
Forest Resource Economics.  1972.  The Ronald Press, New York.
A Legal and Institutional Framework for Natural Resource Management,
 by G. J. Cano.   1975.  FAO Legislative Study No. 9.
Guide to Practical Project Appraisal:   Social Benefit-Cost Analysis
 in Developing Countries.  1978.   United Nations Project Formulation
 and Evaluation Series No. 3.
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects.   1979.  FAO Forestry Paper
 No. 17.
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects:   Case Studies.   1979.  FAO
 Forestry Paper No. 17, Suppl. 1.
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects:   Readings.  1980.  FAO
Forestry Paper No. 17, Suppl. 2.
Multiple Use Forestry
Ecological Guidelines for the Use of Natural Resources in the
 Middle East and Southwest Asia.  1975.   International Union for
 Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
The Use of Ecological Guidelines for Development in the American
 Humid Tropics.   1975.  International Union for Conservation of
 Nature and Natural Resources.
The Use of Ecological Guidelines for Development in Tropical
 Forest Areas of Southeast Asia.  1975.   International Union for
 Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Ecological Guidelines for Tropical Coastal Development.   1976.
 International Union for Conservation for Nature and Natural
Management of Natural Resources in Africa:   Traditional Strategies
 and Modern Decision-Making.  1978.   UNESCO, MAB Technical Note
 No. 9.
Ecological Guidelines for Balanced Land Use, Conservation and
 Development in High Mountains.  1979.   International Union for
 Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
IUFRO/MAB Conference:  Research on Multiple Use of Forest Resources.
 1980.   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,
 General Technical Report WO-25.
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects.   1979.  Hans M. Gregersen
 and Arnoldo H. Contreras.  FAO Forestry Paper 17.
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects.   1980.  Supplement to
 Forestry Paper 17.
Harvesting Wood Products
Guide for Planning Pulp and Paper Enterprises.   1973.  FAO Forestry
 and Forest Products Series No. 18.
The Transfer of Technology to Developing Countries:   The Pulp and
 Paper Industry.   1974.  United Nations Institute for Training and
Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic Value.
 1975.   National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
Harvesting Man-Made Forests in Developing Countries.   1976.  FAO
 Forestry Series No. 21.
The Marketing of Tropical Wood.   Wood Species from South American
 Tropical Moist Forests.  1976.   FAO Forestry Paper No. 5.
Assessment of Logging Costs from Forest Inventories in the Tropics --1.
 Principles and Methodology.  1978.   FAO Forestry Paper
 No. 10/1.
Assessment of Logging Costs from Forest Inventories in the Tropics--2.
 Data Collection and Calculations.  1978.   FAO Forestry
 Paper No. 10/2.
Pulping and Paper-Making Properties of Fast-Growing Plantation
 Wood Species, 1980.  FAO Forestry Paper No. 19/1 and No. 19/2.
Charcoal Making for Small Enterprise:   An Illustrated Training
 Manual.   1975.  D. E. Earle and A. Earle.  Switzerland:  ILO.
Fuelwood Management
Biological and Sociological Basis for a Rational Use of Forest
 Resources for Energy and Organics, Proceedings of an International
 Workshop, May 6-11, 1979, Michigan State University, East
 Lansing Michigan, Stephen G. Boyce, editor.  1979.   U.S. Department
 of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment
 Station.   Ashville, North Carolina.
Proceedings of the USAID Asia Bureau Conference on Energy, Forestry
 and Environment.  1979.   U.S. Agency for International
 Development, Washington, D.C.
Firewood Crops--Shrubs and Tree Species for Energy Production.
 1980.   National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
Agro Forestry Projects
Integrating Forest and Small-Scale Farm Systems in Middle America.
 1977.   Agro-Ecosystems No. 3.
Agroforestry in West Africa:   An Appraisal of Some IDRC Supported
 Research Projects in Ghana and Nigeria.  1978.   Swedforest Consulting,
 Solna, Sweden.
The Place of Agro-Forestry in Managing Tropical Forest.   1980.
 International Symposium of Tropical Forests:  Utilization and Conservation,
 Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Applicability of Agroforestry Systems.   1981.  Centro Agronomico
 Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Quantification of Current Agroforestry Practices and Controlled
 Research Plots in Costa Rica.  1981.   Centro Agronomico Tropical
 de Investigacion y Ensenanza, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Shelterbelt and Wind-break Plantings
Protection of Plants Against Adverse Weather.   1971.  World Meteorological
Planning and Management of Farmstead Windbreaks.   1972.  Iowa
 State University, Cooperative Extension Service, Ames, lowa.
Windbreaks for Conservation.   1974.  U.S. Department of Agriculture,
 Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C.
Shelterbelts on the Great Plains:   Proceedings of the Symposium.
 1976.   Great Plains Agricultural Council, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Windbreak and Wildlife Plantings for Small Rural Acreages and
 Homesites.   1976.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation
 Service, Washington, D.C.
Conifers for Single-Row Field Windbreaks.   1977.  U.S. Department
 of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range
 Experiment Station.
Reforestation and Afforestation Projects
Seedlings of Some Tropical Trees and Shrubs Mainly of Southeast
 Asia, by D. Burger.  1972.   Centre for Agricultural Publishing
 and Documentation, Wageningen.
Reforestation in Arid Lands.   1977.  Volunteers in Technical
 Assistance Manual Series No. 37E.
Savanna Afforestation in Africa.   Lecture Notes for the FAO/DANIDA
 Training Course on Forest Nursery and Establishment Techniques
 for African Savannas and Papers from the Symposium on Savanna
 Afforestation with the Support of the Danish International
 Development Agency, Kaduna, Nigeria 1976.  1977.   FAO Forestry
 Paper No. 11.
Establishment Techniques for Forest Plantations.   1978.  FAO Forestry
 Paper No. 8.
Forest Tree Nursery Soil Management and Related Practices.  1979.
 Canadian Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto.
Forest Activities and Deforestation Problems in Developing Countries.
 1980.  U.S. Agency for International Development,
 Washington, D.C.
Impact on Soils of Fast-Growing Species in Lowland Humid Tropics.
 1980.   FAO Forestry Paper No. 21.
                      BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE
Peter F. Ffolliott is Professor, School of Renewable Natural
     Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.  His current
     teaching and research interests relate to natural
     resource inventory and evaluation systems to analyze timber,
     water, range, and wildlife values.  Previous work experience
     was with the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment
     Station, USDA Forest Service, where he was employed as a
     Research Forester.  He earned B.S. and M.F. degrees in
     Forestry from the University of Minnesota, and a Ph.D. in
     Watershed Management from the University of Arizona.
John L. Thames is Professor, School of Renewable Natural
     Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.  Currently,
     his teaching and research activities focus on watershed
     resource development, and soil and water conservation.  Previous
     work included assignments as a Research Forester with
     the US Army Corps of Engineers and as a Forest Hydrologist
     with the Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest
     Service.    He earned a B.S. degree in Forestry from the University
     of Florida, a M.S. degree in Plant Physiology from
     the University of Mississippi, and a Ph.D. in Watershed
     Management from the University of Arizona.

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