BAKED, LEAVENED BREADS
Richard J. Bess
INDUSTRY PROFILE #19
VOLUNTEERS IN TECHNICAL
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one of a
series briefly describing small or medium-sized industries. The Profile
for persons wishing to start manufacturing plants in developing countries.
contains general plant descriptions, financial and technical factors for plant
and sources of information and expertise. The series is intended to be useful
industries described warrant further inquiry, either to rule out or to decide
investment. The underlying assumption of the profiles is that the individual
making use of
has some knowledge and experience in industrial development.
are listed only for machinery and equipment costs, and are primarily based on
the United States. The prices do not include shipping costs, duty, or taxes,
considered and will vary greatly from country to country and with the type of
but not costs, are given for land, labor, materials, fuel, etc., to provide
with a general checklist of considerations for setting up a business.
PROFILE IS NOT...
for a feasibility study. Before any investment is made in a plant, a thorough
be conducted. This may require skilled economic and engineering expertise. The
questions illustrate the range of answers that may be required:
Is there a market for the product? What is the extent of the present
demand for the product,
and how is it being satisfied?
Will the estimated price and quality of the product make it competitive?
How will the plant be financed?
Has a realistic time table been developed for construction, equipment
materials and supplies, training, and
How are needed materials and supplies to be procured? How will machinery
be maintained and repaired?
Are trained personnel available? Is training available?
Are there adequate facilities for transportation, storage, power/fuel,
What management controls for design, production, quality control, and
other factors have
Will the industry complement or interfere with development plans for the
What social, cultural, and technological considerations must be
addressed regarding the
manufacture and use of this product?
What will be the environmental impact of the manufacture and use of the
documented information responding to these and many other questions should be
proceeding with implementation of an industrial project.
engineers who specialize in industrial design can be found through their
or by referring to the published cards in many engineering journals. The services
engineer are desirable in the design of even small industrial plants. An
design a plant that provides the greatest economy in the investment of funds
which will be
capable of expansion without extensive alteration.
of industrial equipment employ engineers familiar with the design and
specialized products. These manufacturers are usually willing to give
of engineering advice to help determine the suitability of their equipment in
Technical Assistance (VITA) is a private, nonprofit, international development
available to individuals and groups in developing countries a variety of
resources aimed at fostering self sufficiency. VITA provides assistance in
assessment and program development support, by-mail and on-site consulting
and management of long-term field projects. Special emphasis is
placed on the
areas of agriculture and food processing, renewable energy applications, water
sanitation, housing and construction, and small business development--areas in
in the community is an essential step toward the well-being of the country.
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and reviewers of this industry profile are VITA Volunteers, specialists in the
donated their time to the preparation and review of this profile.
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1815 North Lynn Street,
Arlington, Virginia 22209
Telex 440192 VITAUI
BITNET: VITA @ GMUVAX
BAKED, LEAVENED BREADS
by: Richard J. Bess
by: William Carman
is a baked, leavened food whose basic ingredient is flour or meal, to which
often fat and salt, and sometimes sugar. The principal leavening agent is
is made in units (loaves or rolls) in a variety of sizes and shapes to suit
tastes. Spices, fruits, nuts, etc., may be added, depending on product and
describes a small bakery operating with a single shift and producing 100 tons
products a year. It also describes a medium-sized plant operating on the same
tons of baked goods a year.
are received and water added to make dough, which is then blended and processed
in a sequence
of steps involving mixing the dough, allowing the dough to rise, then
baking, cooling, and wrapping the loaves to trade requirements.
economic prospect should be good because many countries throughout the world
goods. Even in areas where rice is the staple food, the consumption of baked
from wheat flour is steadily increasing. And in times of economic downturn in
areas, many customers switch from more expensive foods to bakery products.
Small, batch-process bakeries producing 200 to 500 kg daily, sold in one or a
satisfactory market shares.
depends on the variety of special products made. This in turn depends on
knowledge of food chemistry, mechanical engineering, and trade economics are
baking experience is required. Specialized apprenticeship or formal training in
control aims at freedom from adulteration of product, quality assurance of
sanitary packaging practices, and proper storage. Quality control in production
variables as density, porosity, appearance, weight, mixture properties, volume,
etc. These factors require instrumentation and laboratory testing in proportion
continuous rather than batch mixing is needed for economic operation as
The production level above which continuous operation is needed depends largely
But if modern, high-speed mixing is used, energy costs may become important.
individual consumers and institutions. Individuals may obtain a wrapped unit
the premises where baked goods are made, or transported from a large wholesale
in a distant
place. Institutions of ten obtain their bread from wholesalers. The degree of
transportation and labor costs, determines the cost-price relationship.
include millers who mix grain types and bulk ship through food brokers to
services originate or improve the plant. Machine erectors install
Public utilities provide water, sanitation, and electricity.
Channels and Methods
channels and methods depend on the origin of merchandise. Sales to consumers
may be made
at the bakery
site or at multiple sites integrated by centrally located dominant producers.
may cost from
0.1 percent to 5 percent of sales.
Extent of Market
geographic range of individual bakeries depends on their capacities,
transportation costs, and
For bread, the range is usually limited by the extent to which distant markets
reached in a
day's time by surface transport. Improvements in technology have extended the
lives of some
other kinds of bakery goods from large bakeries.
thinly populated areas, demand may be so low that many products are available
wholesale distributors. In sparsely populated areas, about 90 percent of the
market will be
small producers. In large cities with large producers, the price structure may
a few of them. However, small companies may also set prices if the industry
pass on cost savings to consumers.
level is a major determinant of baked goods acceptability. About 45 kg of the
per year per
capita is consumed in the United States. In low-income areas of the world 300
likely. Baked goods consumption in most high-income societies tends to decline
goes up people's preferences shift from cereal-based food to meat. In the
is about 1 percent per capita annually.
of a Medium-Size Plant, about 250 square meters.
required depends not only on the level of production and the kind of product,
production involves two or three shifts per day. <see plant layout>
AND PLANT REQUIREMENTS
Plant Medium Plant
tons/yr 250 tons/yr
750 sq m
750 sq m
sq m 200 sq m
Equipment & Machinery (thousands of $US)
Tools & Machinery
ingredient handling-RR car
unload, pneumatics trucks,
conveyors, weigh and meter
mixers, proffers, dividers,
rounders, molders, and
baking and cooling ovens,
conveyors, and racks
Support Equipment & Parts
Refrigerators, pan washers,
depanners, lab equipment
*TOTAL ESTIMATED COST
building and land
turnkey on stream
*Based on $US
1987 prices. The estimated costs provide a general idea of the investment
machinery. Actual costs will depend on just what is purchased, when, and where.
& Supplies, tons per year
miscellaneous food items, shop,
office, and sanitation
cartons, boxes, foils, and films
mixer, weigher, batcher
(3 for a three-shift operation)
warehouse, QC, office
Amount in per day
Amount out per day
1 or 2
2 to 5
Manuals & Textbooks
Green, Don W.
(ed.), Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984.
(ed.), Mechanical Engineers' Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986.
A., Bakery Technology: Nutrition, Packaging, Product Development. McAllen,
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 20 v. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987.
Modern Cereal Science and Technology, New York: VCH Publishers, 1987.
J., Baking Science and Technology. Kansas City, Missouri: Sosland Publishers,
Practical Baking, 5th ed. Florence, Kentucky: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Production and Marketing. Chicago: Gorman Publishing Company, 8750 West Bryn
Chicago, Illinois, 60631 USA. 13 issues per yr.
Production and Marketing Buyer Guide, Chicago: Gorman Publishing Co.
Production and Marketing Red Book, Chicago: Gorman Publishing Co.
Processing. Chicago: Putnam Publishing Company, 301 East Erie Street, Chicago,
Institute of Baking, 1213 Bakers Way, Manhattan, Kansas 66502 USA. This
research organization offers a large variety of training and certification
bakery technology. Some courses are offered by correspondence, and some course
Society of Bakery Engineers, 2 North Riverside Plaza, Room 1733, Chicago,
of America, 6525 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782 USA.
VITA has a
number of documents on file dealing with industrial processes. In addition,
plant design, equipment acquisition, etc., on a fee-for-service basis.
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