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CLOSE THIS BOOKMaking of Floors - Course: Timberwork techniques. Instruction examples for practical vocational training (Institut für Berufliche Entwicklung, 21 p.)
VIEW THE DOCUMENT(introduction...)
VIEW THE DOCUMENTPreliminary Remarks
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInstruction Example 6.1.: Checking and Levelling of the Beams
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInstruction Example 6.2.: Laying of Mated Surfaced Deals
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInstruction Example 6.3.: Laying of Matched Surfaced Deals
VIEW THE DOCUMENTInstruction Example 6.4.: Fixing of Skirting Boards

Instruction Example 6.2.: Laying of Mated Surfaced Deals

In this instruction example the laying of mated surfaced deals is practised - a technique which is applied in buildings of secondary importance, such as sheds, lofts etc.


- Surfaced deals, mated

Thickness: 24 mm
Width: 120-160 mm
Length: 4000 mm

- Countersunk head nails

Thickness: 3.1 mm
Length: 70 mm



Hand saw with a tooth form suited for cross cuts, hammer, axe, plane, chisel, nail punch

Measuring and testing means

Folding rule, pencil, flat or try square

Auxiliary accessories

Trestles approximately 600 mm high, deal cramps or steel cramps, wooden wedges and pieces of planks

Required basic knowledge

Measuring, sawing, chopping, planing, nailing

Sequence of operations


1. Arranging the workshop place, putting the trestles for supporting the deals in place, preparing materials and tools.

Check the tools for completeness, test the keenness of the cutting tools.-

2. Measuring the room at several points across the beams.

Check whether or not all the lengths measured are the same.

3. Transmitting the determined length, less 10 -15 mm for an edge strip, on the deals.

If the deals have. the length of the room, 10-15 mm are deducted from the left and right end each for edge strips.

4. Putting a square to the marking of the length, scribing and sawing to length with the hand saw.

If a number of deals shall be cut to the same length, they may also be put one upon the other and sawn at a time.
The square can be put on the pile of deals and an additional vertical marking-out line be drawn.

5. Laying the first deal 10 - 15 mm distant from the wall and nailing it with two nails on each beam.

6. Starting from the fixed deal five to six deals are put closely together.

The number depends also on the quality of the boards.

7. Driving a steel cramp in two to three beams at a distance of 100 - 150 mm from the deals laid, putting a piece of a plank and two wooden wedges between the deals and each cramp, tightening the wedges alternatively and evenly with the hammer this way pressing the deals together.

Wooden wedges are put one above the other only by their tips.

8. Drawing a thin line with lead pencil on the deals - middle of the beam - and nailing the deals from the front - cramps - to the rear.

Do not use a copying-pencil. The steps of work from point 6 to point 8 have to be done repeatedly.

9. For laying the last three deals measuring the space between the deals already laid and the wall, deducting the width of two deals and 15 mm for an edge strip from this measure, preparing the third deal according to the required size, then putting the deals in place. Pressing them together by driving wooden wedges between deal and wall and nailing them.

The last deal must be sawn off or chopped according to the required width and planed.
In order to protect the plaster of the wall against damages, put a piece of a plank between the wooden wedge and the wall.

10. Driving in all nails two to three mm into the surface of the deals with a nail punch.

11. Cleaning the deals and removing superfluous material from butts or joints with a plane.

Before planing make sure that all nails are counter-sunk. By smoothing a uniform and even surface is achieved.

12. Final checking.

Mated surfaced deals