TECHNICAL PAPER #53
UNDERSTANDING PAPER RECYCLING
John Vogler & Peter Sarjeant
Dr. I. B. Sanborn
Dr. Robert Brooks
VOLUNTEERS IN TECHNICAL
Boulevard, Suite 500, Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 276-1800, Fax: (703) 243-1865
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Understanding Paper Recycling
[C]1986, Volunteers in Technical Assistance
This paper is one of a series published by Volunteers in
Assistance to provide an introduction to specific
technologies of interest to people in developing countries.
The papers are intended to be used as guidelines to help
people choose technologies that are suitable to their
They are not intended to provide construction or
details. People are urged to contact VITA or a similar
for further information and technical assistance if they
find that a particular technology seems to meet their needs.
The papers in the series were written, reviewed, and
almost entirely by VITA Volunteer technical experts on a
voluntary basis. Some 500 volunteers were involved in the production
of the first 100 titles issued, contributing approximately
5,000 hours of their time. VITA staff included Marjorie
as editor, Suzanne Brooks handling typesetting and
layout, and Margaret Crouch as project manager.
The VITA Volunteers who wrote and reviewed this paper have
years of experience in the paper industry. Jon Vogler,
Work from Waste, specializes in small-scale industries,
those based on recycled materials. Peter Sarjeant, dedicated
to keeping alive the processes of the old master
craft, is the author of Hand Papermakinq Manual. I. B.
"Bruce" Sanborn is associate director of research
at Consolidated Papers, Inc.; Phil Barr is fiber logistics
for the Weyerhaeuser Company; and Dr. Bob Brooks, also of
Weyerhaeuser, is the manager of pulp and paper educational
William Burger, retired mechanical engineer from
Corporation, assisted in the design of equipment for a
micro paper factory in Tanzania.
VITA is a private, nonprofit organization that supports
working on technical problems in developing countries. VITA
information and assistance aimed at helping individuals and
groups to select and implement technologies appropriate to
situations. VITA maintains an international Inquiry Service,
specialized documentation center, and a computerized roster
volunteer technical consultants; manages long-term field
and publishes a variety of technical manuals and papers.
UNDERSTANDING PAPER RECYCLING
by Jon Vogler & Peter Sarjeant
Papyrus, from which the word paper is derived, is known to
been in use as early as 3000 B.C. Developed in the Nile Valley,
it was made of strips cut from the papyrus plant stem,
and laid, first lengthwise, then crosswise, to form a mat.
mat was then pounded and pressed into a thin sheet. Later,
similar processes elsewhere used other fibers such as silk.
True papermaking, which began in China about A.D. 105, uses
entirely different process than the preparation of papyrus.
begins with rags, straw, bark, wood, or other fibrous
that are chopped or cut fine. The fibers are pounded or
until they are separated from each other and mixed with
Then the fibers are lifted from the water in a sieve-like
that allows the water to drain away, leaving a thin mat of
The fiber mat, which can be dried in place or removed and
dried separately, becomes a sheet of paper.
The earliest recorded manufacture of paper is credited to
the first "purchasing officers," Ts'ai Lun, head
of the Imperial
Supply Department of
Emperor Ho of China. Ts'ai Lun experimented
with a variety of
materials: vegetable fibers, old hemp, cotton
rags, old fishnets, and mulberry bark. The paper produced
cheap and durable
and the surface was good--and, significantly,
it was made of
Early European papers were also made from recycled linen or
cotton rag. It was thick and rough, and the surface needed
"sized" with gelatin or the ink soaked in. Ulman
Stromer set up
a mechanized papermill in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1390, using
water-powered hammers for beating the material, a method
used by the Chinese. The craft accompanied the early
True mechanization was not achieved until 1799, when the
Nicholas Robert built a machine with an endless wire mesh
a pair of squeeze rolls. The device was taken to England and
marketed by two stationers, the Fourdrinier brothers. In
Brian Donkin, a millwright-engineer, built the first
papermaking machine, in Two Waters Mill, Hertfordshire,
and another in America in 1827. Crude early designs improved
steadily. By the end of the nineteenth century, Fourdrinier
was widespread; machines just over 2 meters wide supplied
25 metric tons per day to the growing market for newsprint.
Modern machines form paper in a continuous ribbon or web,
single sheet at a time as did the ancients. A good
the olden days could make enough sheets in a day to weigh
90kg. Today, an average machine makes 90,000kg per day! Much
the paper produced ultimately ends up as waste paper,
of it in some areas, which can often be recycled into other
papers and paper products.
The recycling of waste paper is the
focus of this paper.
II. MODERN PAPERMAKING
FIBERS AND PULPS
Fibers are the fine, thread-like wisps from which paper,
and many other materials are made. Tear a piece of paper
and the fibers can be seen at the torn edge (more clearly
magnifying glass). Paper fibers are made of cellulose, the
building material of plants and trees. These materials can
made into paper by pulping (breaking them down until the
are loose and free of the substances that bind them), then
them while wet and finally drying.
Softwood (or coniferous) pulps are used for tough wrapping
packaging papers because of their long fibers; deciduous or
hardwood pulps provide fine fibers for printing and writing
To understand the waste paper industry it is important to
about the major types of primary wood pulp used in
mechanical pulp, and chemical pulps, which include kraft
and sulphite pulp. Pulp made of recyled paper is known as
Mechanical pulps yield the most paper per ton of wood, but
the weakest. They are made by pounding or grinding cellulose
fiber, such as wood or sugar cane bagasse. One of the
uses of mechanical pulps is in the manufacture of newsprint.
Newsprint is relatively weak and loses its strength
wetted--a characteristic of mechanical pulp. It is used for
newspaper printing because printing ink is soaked up and
very quickly, but it lacks the permanence of paper made from
kraft or sulphite pulp. Strong chemical pulp is often added
mechanical pulp to give newsprint better strength.
Pulp often contains tiny particles of wood that have not
reduced to fiber and are visible to the naked eye, so paper
from it is described as "woody."
A stronger paper product is most cheaply made by pulping
fibers in such a way that they are not weakened by
damage. The wood or stalks are first reduced mechanically to
small chips, then cooked at high pressure with chemicals
attack the bonds between the fibers. The chemicals most
1. Caustic soda and
sodium sulfate, which produce coarse, very
known as kraft, suitable for paper sacks and
boxes that hold
2. Various sulfides
(such as ammonium and calcium), which
produce finer fibers,
suitable for making high quality,
expensive) printing and writing papers (usually
Secondary or recycled pulp is made by vigorously agitating
in water (usually in a hydro-pulper, a tank containing
rotating blades) to separate the fibers bonded during the
papermaking process. As these bonds are weaker than those of
the original cellulose plant, hydro-pulping is a more gentle
process than primary wood pulping and consumes less energy.
so, each time paper is recycled it becomes weaker. Secondary
Pulp is therefore never as strong as the primary fiber from
it was made. It can be almost as good, provided pure waste
of the same type is used. For example, pulp made by
clean kraft sacks will make new sacks of only slightly lower
quality, particularly if mixed with a proportion of primary
Pulp. If, however, the secondary pulp is made from material
contains newspapers or quantities of dirt, dust, or clay, it
not be strong enough to make sack paper.
Coated Papers. In some cases the matted, absorbent surface
paper is coated with a material that makes it glossy and
This coated paper is better for printing. Coated papers are
frequently used in magazines that are financed by the
printed. In the process of hydro-pulping coated wastepaper,
the coating is washed out; thus, the weight of fiber
obtained from a ton of coated paper is less, often by 20
than that obtained from a ton of uncoated paper. As a
value of scrap coated paper to the paper mill, and its
price, will be lower.
If the coating is plastic or other material that will not
in water, the waste paper will require specialized machinery
to recycle it and may reduce the value of more pure paper
with which it is mixed. The same is true of polyethylene
cellophane, glued paper, string, and any material that will
break down in water. Some of the various coated papers can be
kept warm and wet in storage, then cooked in a hot caustic
in order to biodegrade and break down the coating to release
the fibers. Again, these papers require special machinery
handling to recycle and they may not be as valuable as
Printed and Colored Papers. Both printing and tinting reduce
value of papers to be recycled. They make the pulp and the
made from it dull grey in color unless bleached, which is
or de-inked, which is also expensive. Tinting colors the
pulp, which must then either be used for a limited range of
similarly colored products (or cheap, grey products), or
bleached. Therefore, white waste paper is more valuable than
similar material that is colored. Unprinted waste paper is
greater value than the same material printed.
STRUCTURE OF THE PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY
A review of the papermaking industry is needed to understand
ways in which waste paper is used. The manufacture and use
paper is one of the world's biggest industries; it takes
1. pulp mills, which
process wood chips or other materials to
2. paper mills and
board mills, which use pulp or waste paper to
paper and board;
3. paper converters,
which use paper or board to produce boxes,
tubes, rolls of
tissue, boxes of blank office paper, stacks
of printing paper
cut to standard sizs, etc.;
4. printers, who
usually buy from converters, although larger
firms such as
newspaper presses may buy directly from the
paper mills; and
"integrated" mills, which make pulp and then use it themselves
to make paper.
These industries are huge, highly mechanized, and efficient.
There are many of them, so they compete fiercely for the
markets. In countries where huge markets, skilled managers
and technicians, and the massive capital needed for
are available, handmade and small-scale paper manufactureres
it very hard to compete. Large or small, where these
exist they represent potential markets for recycling waste
in developing countries which may lack other
resources for producing pulp.
III. WASTE PAPER COLLECTION
TYPES OF WASTE PAPER
Collecting waste paper is only difficult in a few poorer and
rural parts of the world. Elsewhere it is abundant. Selling
often far more difficult, and only those who thoroughly
stand the market are successful. The different types of
will therefore be considered in relation to their markets,
starting with the most valuable, and going on to those of
Printing and Writing Papers
This category includes the best quality, most expensive
that bring the highest waste paper prices. They are mainly
from bleached kraft and sulphite pulps. They are listed here
descending order of value.
Computer printouts. This is usually used to make high
printing and writing papers.
Computer punched cards (tab cards). These may be
the most valuable, or colored.
Printer trimmings. These are the edge trimmings left when a
printer, boxmaker, or converter cuts the product to its
size. Their high value results from cleanness, lack of
and quality of the material. The value is increased if the
printer has kept different grades separate. If not, it is
worthwhile for the collector to sort the paper into
grades and separate the printed material from the unprinted.
labor-intensive activity needs no investment and can create
jobs. White trimmings should be sorted from colored, but
colors need not be separated. All may be sold to makers of
printing and writing papers.
Office papers. Such papers as invoices, ledgers, letter
and record cards are included in this group. Printed or
on papers are separated from blank paper, and whites are
from colors. Carbon paper and self-duplicating paper are
separated from the rest.
Grease proof and plastic-coated papers, file covers and bookbindings,
metal file clips, string, and other office materials should
be removed. For sales to a big mill it is unnecessary to
staples or paper clips as the mill will remove these with
smaller mills may reject them. Envelopes, including a few
of the cheaper manilla variety (light brown), can be mixed
with whites, as can cream-colored envelopes and papers in
quantity. Adding machine rolls are usually good, white and
Office papers may be sold to makers of printing paper
and high quality board.
School and letter papers. Letter papers may be of good
but school exercise books are low in value, although they
contain little ink (faint ruling does not count), because
are mostly of mechanical pulp. They can be sold to makers of
printing and writing papers.
Pamphlets and magazines. Known in the trade as
"pams," these are
the lowest grade of (printing) papers other than newsprint.
are often coated and have heavy printing and large amounts
color. They are not worth sorting unless a paper mill has a
Particular demand. They are heavy and it is easy to collect
great weight quickly. They are best sold to makers of low
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Newspapers. In some countries, newspapers are little in
due to their low strength. Telephone directories and some
are also made from newsprint. Their principal uses are as
mixed waste paper for the manufacture of cheap flutings,
board (cheap cardboard), or the middle layers of multilayer
boards. There are three important exceptions:
o In poor countries
where little is thrown away, even low
materials are in short supply.
o Some countries
that are heavily industrialized but lack
their own sources
of mechanical pulp, operate "de-inking
These remove ink from old newspapers by washing or
bleaching. If such
plants exist, or if it is economical to
ship to countries
that have them, prices for newspapers may
newsprint is discarded by the newspaper presses,
as are trimmings
from the sides of the paper and reel ends
(the material at
the center of the reel of newsprint, which
cannot be used for
technical reasons). The former can be
sold back to
manufacturers of newsprint and low quality
writing paper. The latter is clean and large
enough to be
cut up and sold at
a high price for food wrappings.
Several types of packaging papers may be collected and
Again, they are described here in descending order of their
Kraft Sacks. Kraft paper is recognized by its strength and
color. It is used for large sacks, in two or three ply
or for smaller bags and wrapping papers. Occasionally,
bleached kraft is used. Watch out for sacks with
linings, often used to protect chemicals from damp, which
are frequently reinforced with canvas or similar material.
Papers (waterproof) are unmarketable and reduce the value of
load. Be sure sacks are empty.
An important decision is whether a greater profit can be
selling kraft for re-use as sacks or to board or kraft paper
mills for pulping. Re-use may entail repair or more sorting,
transportation, and selling costs, but this usually pays
Corrugated Cardboard. This is a brown board made of three
The flat top and bottom layers are called liners and the
(wavy) center is the fluting. The liners are often made of
primary kraft, sometimes with secondary material (e.g.,
sacks or old corrugated boxes) mixed in. The fluting is made
low quality material. Its function is to give stiffness to
wall of the finished box. Pulp for fluting manufacture may
high proportion of mixed waste paper. Corrugated board is
make packing boxes or cartons and these are in demand
Where there is no board mill, boxes can often be sold for
They are rarely contaminated with impurities, though some
board and sack paper has been treated with an invisible
resin, which gives it superior strength when wet. This
will cause problems for the paper mill, since it will be
hard to repulp. As a result, the value of this otherwise
waste paper will be lower.
Special Packaging and Wrapping Papers. These come last in
order of value because of the problems they cause with
or contraries. Much modern packaging mixes plastics, metals,
and other materials with paper and board, and it is
or uneconomical to separate them. Greaseproof, cellophane,
and "wet strength" papers do not break down in
water, cannot be
pulped, and are difficult to recognize and remove. The main
material is cardboard, containing a high proportion of cheap
board (sometimes inside an outer layer of good quality).
amount of color printing is high too. Therefore, although
papers or boards are expensive to produce, their value as
is no higher than that of mixed waste paper and may be lower
Mixed Waste Paper
Mixed waste paper is the lowest usable grade, and may have
any composition. Grey board or multilayer board and similar
packaging materials not acceptable in any other grade, as
mixed, unsorted grades are satisfactory. A number of points
o This is the
material often collected from municipal (town)
garbage dumps by
scavengers, or at specially built composting
o In a district of
offices, factories, or wealthy homes, mixed
waste paper may
contain valuable grades, worth sorting out
for separate sale
if labor costs are low or time is available.
It is important to
realize that the material left,
grades have been removed, may bring a lower
leftover material is principally made up of
packaging, and cheap cardboard. However, if
local mills make
corrugated board, toilet tissues, and cheap
grey board, then
separated kraft sacks, brown paper, and old
cartons can go to
the first and printing and writing papers
to the second. These can be sold for higher
prices and will
not reduce the
price of the remainder for making grey board.
o Mixed waste paper
can be an important source of material for
although merchants may have cornered
supplies of high
quality materials such as kraft, corrugated
printing and writing papers, quantities
of mixed waste
paper may still be obtained from municipal
refuse by those
who know what is valuable and what is not.
exist here for creating more jobs. Once the
sorting have been taught, the work requires
technical skill, nor bodily strength and
may be undertaken
by the disabled or mentally retarded.
o Mixed waste paper
is worth half to a third of the value of
old cartons, and
this value is reduced if it is dirty, as
is most material
extracted from refuse dumps. By sorting
out the higher
grades and selling to the right market, a
value equal to
that of cartons may be achieved. The gain,
however, has to be
compared with the time and cost of sorting,
transporting to several markets instead
of only to one.
SOURCES OF WASTE PAPER
Waste paper can be collected from the following places,
with that which is likely to be the most profitable:
Computer offices produce the most valuable of all.
Printing shops usually sell the trimmings themselves, or
they are collected by a merchant.
Newspaper presses almost always sell the edge trimmings and
Offices throw out quantities of blank paper as well as
records, letters, etc. If offices are small or located away
the city center, they may not have made arrangements to sell
Warehouses receive goods in sacks and corrugated boxes and
discard these after unpacking. Quantities may be large.
Factories may also have large quantities of packaginq that
do not want. These will get dirty on the factory floor
Shops receive goods in cartons; supermarkets and food stores
often give or sell these to their customers. Small shops may
Produce enough to make a visit worthwhile unless there are
Householders may sell their waste paper. It may be dirtied
food waste or ashes and may
not be in large enough quantities to
make a visit worthwhile. Still, thousands of people in many
countries make a living by collecting household waste paper,
sometimes paying the householder a small sum.
Refuse dumps receive only the paper that no one else has
Refuse collectors often keep saleable materials, but
quantities of good quality waste paper continue to arrive at
refuse dumps all over the world.
Some method of transporting the collected material is
This may be:
supported by a vehicle. When full, each cart is
wheeled to the
pick-up point, material is transferred to a
vehicle, and the
cart returns to collection. A good balance
might be six carts
to one vehicle.
o Horse-drawn carts.
For the stop-go process of waste paper
is not "old fashioned" but highly effective.
o Motor vehicle.
Vans and trucks are a very expensive way of
collecting any but
the most valuable grades. With a wire
mesh cage on top,
to increase the load, they may be more
o Trailers. These,
also fitted with a cage top, make collecting
Cartons and boxes must be flattened before transport, by
down or "baling."
Waste paper is baled to reduce the costs of transportation
storage. Baling involves squashing loose material into a
Packed, square-shaped bundle that is then strongly tied, in
or three directions, with wire or string.
Baling makes transport cheaper because a load of loose paper
overflow before it reaches the weight limit that the
carry. Baling makes storage cheaper because material, as
being denser, can safely be stacked much higher.
Baling also reduces the risk of fire--a serious and
risk in waste paper processing. Baling prevents air reaching
inside of the bundle, so flames only char the outside.
baling does not totally remove the risk of fire,
there is unbaled material lying around or if paper is wet,
causes it to ferment and the temperature to rise high enough
burning to begin.
Baling is most efficiently done in a press, a strong box
with some means of compressing the material and holding it
it is tied. In order of cost, this may be:
Treading Box: The simplest, cheapest baling press is a
hinged four-sided wooden frame with no top or bottom but a
at one hinge. To operate, strong string is laid in the empty
which is filled with paper, well trodden down. The string is
tied, then the box joint opened to release the bale.
Hand-powered mechanical presses are used to obtain higher
pressures. Some use levers; some use screws with capstan
(nuts fitted with long turning arms); and some use steel
wound (with a handle) around a spindle bearing a ratchet (a
device to keep the spindle from turning the wrong way). See
Motorized screw presses can be used where electric power is
available. The press has a strong steel frame bearing an
motor. The motor turns a vertical screw, which moves the
(the strong, flat board that compresses the paper) up and
Bales are so tight that thick wire must be used to bind
Hydraulic baling presses can be built to almost any size and
power. They are expensive and need careful maintenance,
in countries where there is desert sand or gritty soil
but they are fast and very efficient. A wide range of
Controls and automatic wiring devices can be fitted onto the
MARKETS FOR WASTEPAPER
The markets for waste paper may be any of the following:
Merchants, who buy from printers, converters, and small
and sell at a profit to the mills;
Exporters, who buy from anyone, to sell on the world market;
Mills, full-size industrial paper or board mills;
Papermakers, small-scale operations (usually plants
less than 30 tons per day); and
Small industries that make high-quality paper by hand, or
use paper to make other products.
In countries where large-scale paper mills do not operate,
where subtantial amounts of products are imported, there may
opportunities to set up small-scale or even handmade
industries. These processes are described in the technical
"Understanding Small-scale Papermaking." Readers
should be extremely
cautious about any plans to compete with the economics of
large-scale papermaking within any given country, as that
makes clear. Other
possible uses of waste paper--other than for
repulping and paper production--are described below.
IV. ALTERNATIVE USES FOR WASTEPAPER
SHREDDED PAPER AS ANIMAL BEDDING
Banks, government agencies, and other organizations often
waste paper into thin strips to prevent confidential
from being read. In England, this material is being marketed
bedding for animals. One commercial company, Shredabed
markets both the material and the machinery for making it.
1. Pigs bedded on this material keep cleaner.
2. Poultry gain a little more weight and suffer less
than birds bedded on wood shavings, straw, or sand.
3. Other livestock suffer less from respiratory (breathing)
problems when bedded on paper instead of straw.
4. Shredded paper is much easier to remove from pens and
after use. It spreads easily on fields and breaks down to
form excellent manure.
5. Shredded waste paper is easy to bale; as a result, the
of transportation and storage is low.
In cities where livestock sell for high prices, but straw or
other bedding materials are hard to obtain, this business
yield good profits, particularly if combined with an
sell the manure to gardeners.
EGG AND FRUIT BOXES FROM OLD CARTONS
A variety of strong, compartmented packing boxes can be
from old, corrugated cartons with a small amount of
equipment (i.e., guillotine or paper shears, folder, punch
slotted tray pieces, and stapling machine).
The old cartons are cut down to accurate size, refolded, and
stapled. It is important that the trays fit exactly and do
move during transportation. To make the trays, off-cuts from
boxes are guillotined to a standard size and punched.
FRUIT AND EGG CARTONS FROM WASTEPAPER PULP
Another process makes egg cartons from paper pulp using a
paper plant called the Super Melbourne. Waste paper is
first soaked, then pulped
and refined. Pulping can be done in a
domestic washing machine.
The equipment includes a refiner that reduces the pulp to
fibers. The slurry that results is poured onto a sheet of
stretched over the forming tank of the Super Melbourne and a
valve in the tank is opened. The water draining from the
sucks moisture from the layer of pulp, which is then pulled
the tank on its sheet of mesh. The layer of pulp is folded
once and pressed between specially shaped dies, then it is
The process employs four people but labor costs are reduced
Super Melbourne machines are batched together for greater
Output is 60 egg trays per hour, or 60 sheets of paper 84 x
cm. The machine requires only 300 watts of electrical power.
of the water used is recycled. Floor space required is two
square meters for the machinery and five square meters for
More sophisticated machinery is availale for producing form
to 4,000 30-egg trays or equivalent products per hour
machine is made by Tomlinsons, but careful market research
essential before contemplating the heavy cost of a machine
tends to saturate any but the largest market.
All over the world the poor use waste paper to construct
homes. It is cheap, and will offer protection from wind and
but there the advantages end. It does not resist water, is
flammable, and is eaten by rats. It is also weak, tears
and rots or becomes brittle after a short time. It is an
material that demonstrates the desperate condition of those
who have no alternative. Asphalted paper, described below,
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ASPHALTED ROOFING SHEETS
Low-quality, low-cost roofing sheets with a life of about
years can be made from the very lowest grades of mixed waste
paper, grades that would not be acceptable for papermaking
the amount of dirt and contraries present. A factory with
molding machines costs about $200,000 for plant and
and can produce about 8,000 sheets daily, each about one
meter in area (over two million square meters annually).
people are employed and 50 tons of paper per week are used.
India, the roofing material retails at around $0.25 per
South America, at about $0.60 per sheet. The manufacturing
consists of the following steps:
1. The waste paper
is washed and pulped in a hydropulper. A
hammer mill or a Hollander beater may be used
2. The pulp is
passed through a screen, to remove dirt, grit, or
impurities, and a board-forming machine to produce a
length of board that is cut to length as it comes
off the machine.
3. The board is
spread on the ground and dried in the open air.
The edges are
trimmed on a rotating slitter.
4. The board passes
through an oven at the end of which are
rollers. The corrugated sheets are then trimmed
stacked in cradles.
5. Next, they are
dipped in a bath of hot asphalt. (Asphalt is
flammable so the
means of heating must be carefully chosen.
hardens rapidly at air temperature and the sheets
are unloaded and
6. When quite hard
the sheets are either:
taped in bundles for sale as third quality;
sprinkled with mineral chips (while asphalt
is soft) prior
to packing as
second quality; or
hand painted and packed as first quality.
In Canada and the United States, there has been some
using shredded waste paper as a thermal insulation material
material that keeps warm houses warm and cool houses
thermal efficiency (i.e., the effectiveness in preventing
of heat) of the shredded and fluffed-up waste paper is
almost as good as glass fiber. To guard against fire, the
is soaked in a solution of borax or alum, or other fire
and then dried. Such material is much cheaper than other
thermal insulators and could be used widely where no straw
available, provided each batch is tested to ensure that the
treatment is effective. It should be noted that rodents
like the salty treated waste paper for bedding and
Phenol is sometimes used against them. This is carcinogenic,
and very hazardous to use.
It is possible to pulp waste paper, compress it into
sun-dry these, and burn them as fuel. However, these
1. produce sooty
smoke, making them a poor choice for cooking or
use in the home;
2. burn poorly,
unless made as very small sticks; and
3. give out low
Only in the absence of any conventional fuel are they likely
be regarded as acceptable for domestic use. Industrial users
tried "refuse-derived" fuel pellets made from
but these have not proved satisfactory. Undoubtedly, there
Potential here but research and development are needed.
BIBLIOGRAPHY/SUGGESTED READING LIST
Ainsworth, J.H. "Paper the 5th Wonder," Thomas
Printing and Publishing
Appropriate Industrial Technology for Paper Products and
Vienna, Austria: United Nations Industrial
Organization (UNIDO) , 1979.
Brook, S. "The Fine Art of Printing," Atlantic
1974 (112-115) .
"The First Ten Years of the Fourdrinier,"
April 17, 1972 (34-41).
"The First 145 Years of the Paper Machine in the
Paper Trade Journal, May 27, 1972 (140-150).
Casey, James P.
"Papermaking," Pulp and Paper, Vol. II, New
York, New York:
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Lexington, Virginia: Bibliographical Society
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March 26, 1921.
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Sarjeant, Peter T. Hand Papermaking Manual. Covington,
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Switzerland: International Labour Office, 1985.
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von Hagen, V.W. The Aztec and Maya Papermakers, New York,
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Mill Plant and
Machinery Manufacturers Ltd.
181 S V
Berolina Industriea, Pvt. Ltd.
Andheri Kurla Road
and Co Ltd.
63 Netaji Subhas Road
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry
One Dunwoody Park
Atlanta, Georgia 30341
Write for free four-page booklet, "How You Can Make
New York, NY
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