INDUSTRY PROFILE #4
WASH AND WEAR PANTS
George J. Coury
Robert W. Rugenstein
VOLUNTEERS IN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500, Arlington, Virginia 22209
Telephone: (703) 276-1800, Fax: (703)
Telex: 440192 VITAUI, Cable: VITAINC
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Men's Wash and Wear Pants
[C]1987, Volunteers in Technical Assistance
This Industry Profile is one of a series briefly describing
small or medium-sized industries. The
Profiles provide basic information for starting
manufacturing plants in developing nations.
Specifically, they provide general plant descriptions,
financial, and technical factors for their
operation, and sources of information and expertise. The
series is intended to be useful in
determining whether the industries described warrant further
inquiry either to rule out or to
decide upon investment. The underlying assumption of these
Profiles is that the individual
making use of them already has some knowledge and experience
in industrial development.
Dollar values are listed only for machinery and equipment
costs, and are primarily based on
equipment in the United States. The price does not include
shipping costs or import-export taxes,
which must be considered and will vary greatly from country
to country. No other investment
costs are included (such as land value, building rental,
labor, etc.) as those prices also vary.
These items are mentioned to provide the investor with a
general checklist of considerations for
setting up a business.
These profiles should not be substituted for feasibility
studies. Before an investment is made in
a plant, a feasibility study should be conducted. This may
require skilled economic and
engineering expertise. The following illustrates the range
of questions to which answers must
What is the extent of the present demand
for the product, and how is it now being
Will the estimated price and quality of
the product make it competitive?
What is the marketing and distribution
plan and to whom will the product be
How will the plant be financed?
Has a realistic time schedule for
construction, equipment, delivery, obtaining
and supplies, training of personnel, and the start-up time for the plant
How are needed materials and supplies to
be procured and machinery and
to be maintained and repaired?
Are trained personnel available?
Do adequate transportation, storage,
power, communication, fuel, water, and
What management controls for design,
production, quality control, and other
have been included?
Will the industry complement or interfere
with development plans for the area?
What social, cultural, environmental, and
technological considerations must be
regarding manufacture and use of this product?
Fully documented information responding to these and many
other questions should be
determined before proceeding with implementation of an
Equipment Suppliers, Engineering Companies
The services of professional engineers are desirable in the
design of industrial plants even though
the proposed plant may be small. A correct design is one
that provides the greatest economy in
the investment of funds and establishes the basis of
operation that will be most profitable in the
beginning and will also be capable of expansion without
Professional engineers who specialize in industrial design can
be found be referring to the
published cards in various engineering magazines. They may
also be reached through their
Manufacturers of industrial equipment employ engineers
familiar with the design and installation
of their specialized products. These manufacturers are
usually willing to give prospective
customers the benefit of technical advice by those engineers
in determining the suitability of their
equipment in any proposed project.
Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA) is a private,
non-profit, volunteer organization
engaged in international development. Through its varied
activities and services, VITA fosters
self-sufficiency by promoting increased economic
productivity. Supported by a volunteer roster
of over 5,000 experts in a wide variety of fields, VITA is
able to provide high quality technical
information to requesters. This information is increasingly
conveyed through low-cost advanced
communication technologies, including terrestrial packet
radio and low-earth-orbiting satellite.
VITA also implements both long- and short-term projects to
promote enterprise development and
MEN'S WASH AND WEAR PANTS
PREPARED By: Edward
REVIEWED By: Robert
1. The Product
Men's pants are made from wash and wear material. They come
waist sizes ranging from 28 to 44, and lengths from 30 to 36
boys' pants, uniform trousers, and work pants
other than jeans can also be made from the same material.
2. The Facility
This Profile describes one plant operating with one shift
producing 15,000 dozens pairs of pants a year, and another
produces 22,000 dozens a year.
It is important for a small factory to be able to produce
it is imperative to have a designer/pattern-maker
available to quickly produce properly fitted items as may
be requested by the customer.
Wash and wear pants are readily marketable because they are
low-priced compared with slacks.
The investment needed to
establish this plant is small when compared with the number
people employed. The gross profit estimate is favorable.
the conditions in country.
reconditioned sewing machines can perform just as
well as some of the items listed on page 4. They may cost
the price of new machines.
The machinery and equipment used to produce men's pants are
similar to the kind used in the apparel industry to
other types of clothing. Therefore, it is possible and
recommended that other kinds of clothing or other fabric
made at this plant. In other words, it should not be
manufacturing a single item.
3. Knowledge Base
A good business plan is necessary. A two to three-year
should be prepared and caution taken against overextension.
Other considerations of management should include:
b) Knowledge of
c) Sources of
d) Knowledge of
e) Knowledge of
procurement of material and equipment
f) Capability to
find government support
4. Quality Control
Quality control is very important, and specifications vary
company to company and from garment to garment. For example,
entire order may be rejected for as little an error as the
of stitches per inch or the tension of the thread.
5. Constraints and
There may be a shortage of skilled designers,
cutters, and mechanics.
transportation requirements, but good highways
--Manager and supervisors should be fully
will be operating more than one machine.
period, production workers should go on piece
electric power system is needed.
In most urban centers there are sales representatives of
manufacturers and jobbers of fabrics.
It may be too
expensive to go to the United States or other western
look for design, fabrics, and machines. Hong Kong and Tokyo
also good sources for these items.
3. Sales Channels
Sales will be made directly to large stores and to
for resale to small retailers. The domestic rate of
of men's wash and wear pants will depend primarily upon wage
levels and clothing habits of the population. The product
be well packaged in cardboard boxes that can be transported
easily anywhere within the country.
One path to explore is contracting with U.S. garment
to supply a steady source of work for the plant.
investments in plant and equipment for exports should not be
undertaken unless there is a written commitment from the
or contractor who can guarantee an outlet for the garments.
4. Geographic Extent
Domestic - The product is easy to ship and transport costs
normally low in relation to product value. Market may be
Export - Some export sales to neighboring nations not having
factories might be possible.
Domestic Market - Very small makers and imports may provide
Export Market - The plant is relatively small and might have
great difficulty in competing with mass producers or with
from areas where labor is plentiful and cheap.
6. Market Capacity
Under average conditions a population of about a million
probably be large enough to support production for a plant
PRODUCTION AND PLANT REQUIREMENTS
Utilities Small Plant
story 6,000 s.f.
load 100 hp
Fuel (for steam,
(processing, sanitation, fire)
2. Major Equipment
& Machinery Small Plant
(heavy duty) (3)
& belt loops (3)
Equipment & Parts
*TOTAL ESTIMATED COST
of equipment & machinery only
*Based on $US 1987 prices. The costs provided are estimates
are given only to provide a general idea for machinery
they are not intended to be used as absolute prices. Costs
need to be determined on a case by case basis.
3. Materials &
Supplies* Small Plant
lining (for waistband &
yd. cones) 3,600 cones
4,000 gross 5,700
dozen 23,000 dozen
gas, oil &
truck maintenance 2,000
Small Plant Medium
Amount in/out per
day 60 dozen
Plant Medium Plant
*This includes an approximate amount of materials used over
period of a year. It does not mean that a year's supply must
stored on the premises.
PROCESS DIAGRAM <see plant layout and work flow>
Unless otherwise stated, these addresses are in the United
1. Technical Manuals
Fashion Institute of Technology 7 Ave. & 27 St.
New York, New York 10001
Library and bookstore with full listing of books on design,
Model Garment Factory for Men's Shirts and Trousers.
Nations Industrial Development Organization.
Women's Wear Daily & Daily News Record
7 E 12 Street
New York, New York 10003
PO Box 1986
1110 Shop Road
Columbia, South Carolina 29202
Apparel Industries Magazine
180 Allen Street
Atlanta, Georgia 30328
366 Park Avenue, South
New York, NY 10016
American Apparel Manufacturing Association
2500 Wilson Blvd.
Arlington, Virginia 22201
National Knitwear & Sportswear Association
366 Park Ave., South
New York, New York 10016
Suppliers, Engineering Companies
Hudson Sewing Machine Co.
109 Johnston St.
Newburgh, New York 12550
(dealer in all types of equipment)
135 Raritan Center Parkway
Edison, New Jersey 08837
(sewing room equipment, cutting room equipment)
Kurt Salmon Associates
350 Fifth Avenue
New York, New York 10118
(management consultants, consulting services)
A Sourcing Guide for the Apparel Industry
The Associate Membership Congress
American Apparel Manufacturers Association
2500 Wilson Boulevard
Arlington, Virginia 22201
6. VITA Resources
VITA has a number of documents on file dealing with the
and clothing industry. For example:
Selected Information Resources on Textiles.
Compiled by J.A.
Feulner, National Referral Center, Library of Congress, May,
1980. 17 pp. XII-E-1, P. 1, 022470, 12.
7. VITA Venture
VITA Venture Services, a subsidiary of VITA, provides
services for industrial development.
includes technology and financial information, technical
marketing, and joint ventures.
For further information,