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                        INDUSTRY PROFILE #4
                   WASH AND WEAR PANTS
                          Prepared By
                        Edward Hochberg
                          Reviewed By
                        George J. Coury
                      Robert W. Rugenstein
                      Published By
1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500, Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
           Telephone: (703) 276-1800, Fax: (703) 243-1865
                Telex: 440192 VITAUI, Cable: VITAINC
        Internet:, Bitnet: vita@gmuvax
                     Men's Wash and Wear Pants
                            ISBN: 0-86619-291-3
                 [C]1987, Volunteers in Technical Assistance
                             INDUSTRY PROFILES
This Industry Profile is one of a series briefly describing small or medium-sized industries. The
Profiles provide basic information for starting manufacturing plants in developing nations.
Specifically, they provide general plant descriptions, financial, and technical factors for their
operation, and sources of information and expertise. The series is intended to be useful in
determining whether the industries described warrant further inquiry either to rule out or to
decide upon investment. The underlying assumption of these Profiles is that the individual
making use of them already has some knowledge and experience in industrial development.
Dollar values are listed only for machinery and equipment costs, and are primarily based on
equipment in the United States. The price does not include shipping costs or import-export taxes,
which must be considered and will vary greatly from country to country. No other investment
costs are included (such as land value, building rental, labor, etc.) as those prices also vary.
These items are mentioned to provide the investor with a general checklist of considerations for
setting up a business.
These profiles should not be substituted for feasibility studies. Before an investment is made in
a plant, a feasibility study should be conducted. This may require skilled economic and
engineering expertise. The following illustrates the range of questions to which answers must
be obtained:
       *     What is the extent of the present demand for the product, and how is it now being
       *     Will the estimated price and quality of the product make it competitive?
       *     What is the marketing and distribution plan and to whom will the product be
       *     How will the plant be financed?
       *     Has a realistic time schedule for construction, equipment, delivery, obtaining
            materials and supplies, training of personnel, and the start-up time for the plant
            been developed?
       *     How are needed materials and supplies to be procured and machinery and
            equipment to be maintained and repaired?
       *     Are trained personnel available?
       *     Do adequate transportation, storage, power, communication, fuel, water, and
            other facilities exist?
       *     What management controls for design, production, quality control, and other
            factors have been included?
       *     Will the industry complement or interfere with development plans for the area?
       *     What social, cultural, environmental, and technological considerations must be
            addressed regarding manufacture and use of this product?
Fully documented information responding to these and many other questions should be
determined before proceeding with implementation of an industrial project.
                   Equipment Suppliers, Engineering Companies
The services of professional engineers are desirable in the design of industrial plants even though
the proposed plant may be small. A correct design is one that provides the greatest economy in
the investment of funds and establishes the basis of operation that will be most profitable in the
beginning and will also be capable of expansion without expensive alteration.
Professional engineers who specialize in industrial design can be found be referring to the
published cards in various engineering magazines. They may also be reached through their
national organizations.
Manufacturers of industrial equipment employ engineers familiar with the design and installation
of their specialized products. These manufacturers are usually willing to give prospective
customers the benefit of technical advice by those engineers in determining the suitability of their
equipment in any proposed project.
Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA) is a private, non-profit, volunteer organization
engaged in international development. Through its varied activities and services, VITA fosters
self-sufficiency by promoting increased economic productivity. Supported by a volunteer roster
of over 5,000 experts in a wide variety of fields, VITA is able to provide high quality technical
information to requesters. This information is increasingly conveyed through low-cost advanced
communication technologies, including terrestrial packet radio and low-earth-orbiting satellite.
VITA also implements both long- and short-term projects to promote enterprise development and
transfer technology.
                   MEN'S WASH AND WEAR PANTS
PREPARED By:  Edward Hochberg
REVIEWED By:  Robert W. Rugenstein
              George J. Coury
1.  The Product
Men's pants are made from wash and wear material. They come in
waist sizes ranging from 28 to 44, and lengths from 30 to 36
inches.  Shorts, boys' pants, uniform trousers, and work pants
other than jeans can also be made from the same material.
2.  The Facility
This Profile describes one plant operating with one shift and
producing 15,000 dozens pairs of pants a year, and another that
produces 22,000 dozens a year.
It is important for a small factory to be able to produce varied
styles.  Therefore, it is imperative to have a designer/pattern-maker
available to quickly produce properly fitted items as may
be requested by the customer.
Wash and wear pants are readily marketable because they are
low-priced compared with slacks.   The investment needed to
establish this plant is small when compared with the number of
people employed. The gross profit estimate is favorable.
1.  Outlook
    A.   Economic
        Depends on the conditions in country.
    B.   Technical
        Good reconditioned sewing machines can perform just as
well as some of the items listed on page 4. They may cost half
the price of new machines.
2.  Manufacturing Equipment Flexibility
The machinery and equipment used to produce men's pants are
similar to the kind used in the apparel industry to manufacture
other types of clothing. Therefore, it is possible and strongly
recommended that other kinds of clothing or other fabric items be
made at this plant. In other words, it should not be confined to
manufacturing a single item.
3.  Knowledge Base
A good business plan is necessary. A two to three-year projection
should be prepared and caution taken against overextension.
Other considerations of management should include:
    a) Business experience
    b) Knowledge of field
    c) Sources of capital
    d) Knowledge of market
    e) Knowledge of procurement of material and equipment
    f) Capability to find government support
4.  Quality Control
Quality control is very important, and specifications vary from
company to company and from garment to garment. For example, an
entire order may be rejected for as little an error as the number
of stitches per inch or the tension of the thread.
5.  Constraints and Limitations
There may be a shortage of skilled designers, pattern-makers,
cutters, and mechanics.
    --No special transportation requirements, but good highways
      would be helpful.
    --Manager and supervisors should be fully experienced.
    --Some operators will be operating more than one machine.
    --After break-in period, production workers should go on piece
      work rates.
    --A reliable electric power system is needed.
1.  Users
    Men and teenagers.
2.  Suppliers
In most urban centers there are sales representatives of equipment
manufacturers and jobbers of fabrics.   It may be too
expensive to go to the United States or other western nations to
look for design, fabrics, and machines. Hong Kong and Tokyo are
also good sources for these items.
3.  Sales Channels and Methods
Sales will be made directly to large stores and to wholesalers
for resale to small retailers. The domestic rate of consumption
of men's wash and wear pants will depend primarily upon wage
levels and clothing habits of the population. The product should
be well packaged in cardboard boxes that can be transported
easily anywhere within the country.
One path to explore is contracting with U.S. garment manufacturers
to supply a steady source of work for the plant.   Large
investments in plant and equipment for exports should not be
undertaken unless there is a written commitment from the manufacturer
or contractor who can guarantee an outlet for the garments.
4.  Geographic Extent of Market
Domestic - The product is easy to ship and transport costs are
normally low in relation to product value. Market may be nationwide.
Export - Some export sales to neighboring nations not having such
factories might be possible.
5.  Competition
Domestic Market - Very small makers and imports may provide
Export Market - The plant is relatively small and might have
great difficulty in competing with mass producers or with exports
from areas where labor is plentiful and cheap.
6.  Market Capacity
Under average conditions a population of about a million would
probably be large enough to support production for a plant of
this size.
         Requirements                        Annual Output:
                                       15,000 dozen    22,000 dozen
1.  Infrastructure, Utilities          Small Plant     Medium Plant
    Land                                1/2 acre        1/3 acre
    Building one story         6,000 s.f.      10,000
    Power connected load       100 hp          120 hp
    Fuel (for steam, heat)
    Water (processing, sanitation, fire)
2.  Major Equipment & Machinery         Small Plant        Medium Plant
                                            Units              Units
    Tools & Machines
     cloth spreader                          (1)               (1)
     cloth unwinder                          (1)               (1)
     cutting tables                          (2)                (2)
     cutting machine (heavy duty)            (3)                (4)
     cloth drill                              (1)                (1)
     buttonhole machine                      (2)                (1)
     buttonsewer machine                     (1)                (1)
     safety stitch                          (10)              (10)
     single needle                           (9)               (9)
     overlock                                 (2)                (2)
     double needle flatbead                  (1)                (1)
     double needle machine for
       waistband & belt loops                (3)                (3)
     bartack                                  (1)                (2)
     pocket press (1)                        (1)                (1)
     Support Equipment & Parts
     furniture & fixtures
     hand trucks                              (3)                (3)
     20 hp boiler                            (1)               (1)
     pressing machine                        (1)                (2)
     racks                                    (6)               (10)
     chairs & workbenches (36)
     work tables
     storage shelves
     spare parts & tools
     truck/van                                (3)                (1)
     work baskets
of equipment & machinery only                $103,000           $116,000
*Based on $US 1987 prices. The costs provided are estimates and
are given only to provide a general idea for machinery costs;
they are not intended to be used as absolute prices. Costs still
need to be determined on a case by case basis.
3.  Materials & Supplies*          Small Plant       Medium Plant
    Raw Materials
    fabric                          360,000 yards     540,000 yards
     lining (for waistband &
      pockets)                       40,000 yards      60,000 yards
    thread (12,000 yd. cones)        3,600 cones       5,000 cones
    zippers                          15,000 dozen      23,000 dozen
    buttons                           4,000 gross      5,700 gross
    hang tags                        15,000 dozen      23,000 dozen
    labels                           15,000 dozen      23,000 dozen
    metal fasteners                 15,000 dozen     23,000 dozen
    lubricants                      $ 3,000           $ 4,000
    office & factory supplies
    gas, oil & truck maintenance     2,000             2,000
    shipping cartons
4.  Labor                            Small Plant                    Medium Plant
    designer/pattern maker           1                      1
    cutters                           2                      3
    operators                        26                     36
    pressers                          4                      6 
    floor help                        6                      8
    Unskilled                         4                      5
    manager                           1                      1
    office                           1                      1
    supervisor                        1                      2
    mechanic/chauffeur               1                     1
5.  Distribution/Supply flow          Small Plant           Medium Plant
    Amount in/out per day             60 dozen          80-95 dozen
6.  Market Requirements                       Small Plant      Medium Plant
    Population                                 1 million
*This includes an approximate amount of materials used over a
period of a year. It does not mean that a year's supply must be
stored on the premises.
PROCESS DIAGRAM <see plant layout and work flow>

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Unless otherwise stated, these addresses are in the United
1.  Technical Manuals & Textbooks
Fashion Institute of Technology 7 Ave. & 27 St.
New York, New York 10001
Library and bookstore with full listing of books on design,
pattern-making, marketing.
Model Garment Factory for Men's Shirts and Trousers.   United
Nations Industrial Development Organization.   December, 1974.
31 pages.
2.  Periodicals
Women's Wear Daily & Daily News Record
Fairchild Publications
7 E 12 Street
New York, New York 10003
Bobbin Magazine
Bobbin International
PO Box 1986
1110 Shop Road
Columbia, South Carolina 29202
Apparel Industries Magazine
180 Allen Street
Atlanta, Georgia 30328
Apparel World
366 Park Avenue, South
New York, NY 10016
3.  Trade Associations
American Apparel Manufacturing Association
2500 Wilson Blvd.
Arlington, Virginia 22201
(703) 524-1864
National Knitwear & Sportswear Association
366 Park Ave., South
New York, New York 10016
4.  Equipment Suppliers, Engineering Companies
Hudson Sewing Machine Co.
109 Johnston St.
Newburgh, New York 12550
(dealer in all types of equipment)
Singer Corporation
135 Raritan Center Parkway
Edison, New Jersey 08837
(sewing room equipment, cutting room equipment)
Kurt Salmon Associates
350 Fifth Avenue
New York, New York 10118
(management consultants, consulting services)
5.  Directories
Buyers Guide:
A Sourcing Guide for the Apparel Industry
produced by
The Associate Membership Congress
American Apparel Manufacturers Association
2500 Wilson Boulevard
Arlington, Virginia 22201
6.  VITA Resources
VITA has a number of documents on file dealing with the textile
and clothing industry. For example:
Selected Information Resources on Textiles.   Compiled by J.A.
Feulner, National Referral Center, Library of Congress, May,
1980. 17 pp. XII-E-1, P. 1, 022470, 12.
7.  VITA Venture Services
VITA Venture Services, a subsidiary of VITA, provides commercial
services for industrial development.   This fee-for-service
includes technology and financial information, technical assistance,
marketing, and joint ventures.   For further information,
contact, VITA.

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