INDUSTRY PROFILE #7
Robert H. Dickman
Warren D. Winterson
Vernon L. Singleton
VOLUNTEERS IN TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
Boulevard, Suite 500, Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 276-1800, Fax: (703) 243-1865
Telex 440192 VITAUI, Cable: VITAINC
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Unfermented Grape juice
[C]1987, Volunteers in Technical Assistance
This Industry Profile is one of a series briefly describing
small or medium-sized industries. The
Profiles provide basic information for starting
manufacturing plants in developing nations.
Specifically, they provide general plant descriptions,
financial, and technical factors for their
operation, and sources of information and expertise. The
series is intended to be useful in
determining whether the industries described warrant further
inquiry either to rule out or to
decide upon investment. The underlying assumption of these
Profiles is that the individual
making use of them already has some knowledge and experience
in industrial development.
Dollar values are listed only for machinery and equipment
costs, and are primarily based on
equipment in the United States. The price does not include
shipping costs or import-export taxes,
which must be considered and will vary greatly from country
to country. No other investment
costs are included (such as land value, building rental,
labor, etc.) as those prices also vary.
These items are mentioned to provide the investor with a
general checklist of considerations for
setting up a business.
These profiles should not be substituted for feasibility
studies. Before an investment is made in
a plant, a feasibility study should be conducted. This may
require skilled economic and
engineering expertise. The following illustrates the range
of questions to which answers must
What is the extent of the present demand for
the product, and how is it now being
Will the estimated price and quality of the
product make it competitive?
What is the marketing and distribution plan
and to whom will the product be
How will the plant be financed?
Has a realistic time schedule for
construction, equipment, delivery, obtaining
supplies, training of personnel, and the start-up time for the plant
How are needed materials and supplies to be
procured and machinery and
equipment to be
maintained and repaired?
Are trained personnel available?
Do adequate transportation, storage, power,
communication, fuel, water and
What management controls for design,
production, quality control, and other
Will the industry complement or interfere
with development plans for the area?
What social, cultural, environmental, and
technological considerations must be
regarding manufacture and use of this product?
Fully documented information responding to these and many
other questions should be
determined before proceeding with implementation of an
Equipment Suppliers, Engineering
The services of professional engineers are desirable in the
design of industrial plants even though
the proposed plant may be small. A correct design is one
that provides the greatest economy in
the investment of funds and establishes the basis of
operation that will be most profitable in the
beginning and will also be capable of expansion without
Professional engineers who specialize in industrial design
can be found be referring to the
published cards in various engineering magazines. They may
also be reached through their
Manufacturers of industrial equipment employ engineers
familiar with the design and installation
of their specialized products. These manufacturers are
usually willing to give prospective
customers the benefit of technical advice by those engineers
in determining the suitability of their
equipment in any proposed project.
Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA) is a private,
non-profit, volunteer organization
engaged in international development. Through its varied
activities and services, VITA fosters
self-sufficiency by promoting increased economic
productivity. Supported by a volunteer roster
of over 5,000 experts in a wide variety of fields, VITA is
able to provide high quality technical
information to requesters. This information is increasingly
conveyed through low-cost advanced
communication technologies, including terrestrial packet
radio and low-earth-orbiting satellite.
VITA also implements both long- and short-term projects to
promote enterprise development and
UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE
PRODUCED BY: George Rubin
REVIEWED BY: Robert H. Dickman
1. The Product
The product is grape juice that has not been fermented,
or concentrated. It is shipped in 50-55 gallon drums or
bulk containers to bottling plants, or can be bottled on
most grape juice is white and of different mild flavors,
on whether the variety is European wine grapes (Vitis
vinifera) or species (Vitis abrusca).
2. The Facility
This profile describes a plant operating with one shift and
producing 125,000 gallons of grape juice a year, and another
produces 260,000 gallons a year.
The plant should be located near a grape-growing area to
an assured and adequate supply of grape.
Prevention of fermentation of grape juice is difficult.
some form of pasteurization or very cold storage (below
and transit will be necessary.
Total capital requirements are high and some skilled labor
needed. The general increase in the consumption of fruit
make the prospects for a business of this kind seem
good, as long as a reasonable local market exists.
since the juice has to settle or be clarified by other
initial working capital is fairly high. No income should be
expected to accrue from sales during the first few months of
The market is a local one due in large part to excess grape
production in much of Europe and the economical production
concentrated juice for easier shipment and preservation.
fermentation and other spoilage is not easy
with single strength grape juice. Some basic knowledge of
microbiology of foods is needed by the manager.
There are several alternatives to choose from in producing
product. Used equipment of the sort described is frequently
Although the equipment described ere is specialized for
handling, with minor additions and sufficient labor, it can
process other fruit juices. Concentrates can be produces
addition of evaporator.
3. Knowledge Base
A basic understanding of yeast, mold, and bacterial spoilage
essential. However, with grape juice such spoilage should
lead to health hazard but only product deterioration.
4. Quality Control
Microbial and sensory chemical analysis are required to
sugar, acid, pH, color, clarity, and perhaps acetic acid,
ethanol, and sulfur dioxide (S02). Incoming fruit should be
checked, and an operation log should be kept on the
5. Constraints and
In temperate climates the grape harvesting season is short.
Therefore, plant capacity must be large enough to produce,
process, and store within a few weeks the juice for a year's
sales. Storage of single strength juice must be free from
spoilage (mold, bacteria, or yeast). Tropical countries can
spread their harvest, but usually will have more disease
Ordinarily the profit is made at the bottler-retail end. If
possible, the bulk processing should be combined with the
bottling operation or at least closely coordinated.
A minimal supply of grapes f rom local grape growers at
satisfactory prices is essential.
3. Sales Channels and Methods
Sales will be made mostly to bottling plants, depending on
number of potential customers, the quantity they are willing
acquire, and the availability of a good transport system.
4. Geographic Extent of Market
Plant must be located close to the supply of grapes. The
product is bulky and must be packaged for transport; it may
to be refrigerated. A nationwide distribution is possible;
plant would not ship abroad, except possibly into
surrounding areas of neighboring countries.
Domestic: Other fruit juices possibly imported, may compete,
Export: Plant will not ship abroad because competition from
large foreign firms may be too strong, especially
since concentrates have been developed that considerably
6. Market Capacity
Consumption will largely depend on the income levels and
habits of the population. Bottling plants serving a
four to five million might absorb the output of the plant.
PRODUCTION AND PLANT REQUIREMENTS
(1 shift) 125,000
gals. 260,000 gals.
Utilities Small Plant
sq.ft. 40,000 sq.ft.
connected load apx.
8,000 20,000 gals.
F holding room for pressed juice
2. Major Equipment
& Machinery Small Plant
kettle with motor-driven
(*)TOTAL ESTIMATED COSTS
of equipment & machinery only
(*)Based on $US 1987 prices. The costs provided are
are given only to provide a general idea for machinery
they are not intended to be used as absolute prices. Costs
need to be determined on a case by case basis.
3. Materials &
Supplies Small Plant
drums, 55 gal.
(may be used 5 or
6 times before wearing
out - available
in S.S. and in plastic)
Small Plant Medium Plant
Amount in per
day Varies seasonally
Amount out per
External transport facilities - grapes delivered at plant.
Shipments about 750 tons per month. A good highway is
6. Market Requirements
PROCESS DESCRIPTION (see plant layout>
The steps in processing unfermented grape juice are:
1. Grape samples are
2. Grapes are
stemmed and crushed
3. Peptic Enzyme is
added to must (the newly pressed juice)
4. Grape must is
5. Solid particles
are filtered out
6. Juice is
7. Juice is stored
at low temperature until bottled
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Note that the waste products--the seed & oil--can be
compost or for other by-products.
Unless otherwise stated, these addresses are in the United
1. Technical Manuals
General Viticulture, by A.J. Winkler et al, University of
California Press, Berkeley, California. 1974. Devoted to all
aspects of the culture of grapes.
Technology of Winemaking.
4th Edition, Amerine et al. AVI
Publishing Co., Westport, Connecticut.
Sensory Evaluation Guide for Testing Food and Beverace
by A.E. Dethmers et al, Institute for Food Technology, IFT
Reprint Department, P.O. Box 94332, Chicago, Illinois 60690.
Wines & Vines (Monthly and Directory)
1800 Lincoln Ave.
San Rafael, California 94901-2398
221 N. LaSalle Street
Chicago, Illinois 60601
Institute for Food Technology
P.O. Box 94332
Chicago, Illinois 60690
Suppliers, Engineering companies
Peapack, North Dakota 02977
Valley Foundry & Machine Works
PO Box 1626
2510 Southeast Avenue
Fresno, California 93717
Dejuicers & screw press
Wine & Vines (Directory)
1800 Lincoln Avenue
San Rafael, California 94901-2398
6. VITA Venture
VITA Venture Services, a subsidiary of VITA, provides
services for industrial development. This fee-for-service
includes technology and financial information, technical
marketing, and joint ventures. For further information,
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