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                          INDUSTRY PROFILE #7
                              GRAPE JUICE
                              Prepared By
                             George Rubin
                              Reviewed By
                          Robert H. Dickman
                          Warren D. Winterson
                          Vernon L. Singleton
                             Published By
    1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500, Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
            Telephone: (703) 276-1800, Fax: (703) 243-1865
                  Telex 440192 VITAUI, Cable: VITAINC
           Internet, Bitnet. vita@gmuvax
                        Unfermented Grape juice
                          ISBN: 0-86619-294-8
              [C]1987, Volunteers in Technical Assistance
                           INDUSTRY PROFILES
This Industry Profile is one of a series briefly describing small or medium-sized industries. The
Profiles provide basic information for starting manufacturing plants in developing nations.
Specifically, they provide general plant descriptions, financial, and technical factors for their
operation, and sources of information and expertise. The series is intended to be useful in
determining whether the industries described warrant further inquiry either to rule out or to
decide upon investment. The underlying assumption of these Profiles is that the individual
making use of them already has some knowledge and experience in industrial development.
Dollar values are listed only for machinery and equipment costs, and are primarily based on
equipment in the United States. The price does not include shipping costs or import-export taxes,
which must be considered and will vary greatly from country to country. No other investment
costs are included (such as land value, building rental, labor, etc.) as those prices also vary.
These items are mentioned to provide the investor with a general checklist of considerations for
setting up a business.
These profiles should not be substituted for feasibility studies. Before an investment is made in
a plant, a feasibility study should be conducted. This may require skilled economic and
engineering expertise. The following illustrates the range of questions to which answers must
be obtained:
  *   What is the extent of the present demand for the product, and how is it now being
  *   Will the estimated price and quality of the product make it competitive?
  *   What is the marketing and distribution plan and to whom will the product be
  *  How will the plant be financed?
  *   Has a realistic time schedule for construction, equipment, delivery, obtaining
     materials and supplies, training of personnel, and the start-up time for the plant
     been developed?
  *   How are needed materials and supplies to be procured and machinery and
     equipment to be maintained and repaired?
  *   Are trained personnel available?
  *   Do adequate transportation, storage, power, communication, fuel, water and
     other facilities exist?
  *   What management controls for design, production, quality control, and other
     factors have been included?
  *   Will the industry complement or interfere with development plans for the area?
  *   What social, cultural, environmental, and technological considerations must be
     addressed regarding manufacture and use of this product?
Fully documented information responding to these and many other questions should be
determined before proceeding with implementation of an industrial project.
              Equipment Suppliers, Engineering Companies
The services of professional engineers are desirable in the design of industrial plants even though
the proposed plant may be small. A correct design is one that provides the greatest economy in
the investment of funds and establishes the basis of operation that will be most profitable in the
beginning and will also be capable of expansion without expensive alteration.
Professional engineers who specialize in industrial design can be found be referring to the
published cards in various engineering magazines. They may also be reached through their
national organizations.
Manufacturers of industrial equipment employ engineers familiar with the design and installation
of their specialized products. These manufacturers are usually willing to give prospective
customers the benefit of technical advice by those engineers in determining the suitability of their
equipment in any proposed project.
Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA) is a private, non-profit, volunteer organization
engaged in international development. Through its varied activities and services, VITA fosters
self-sufficiency by promoting increased economic productivity. Supported by a volunteer roster
of over 5,000 experts in a wide variety of fields, VITA is able to provide high quality technical
information to requesters. This information is increasingly conveyed through low-cost advanced
communication technologies, including terrestrial packet radio and low-earth-orbiting satellite.
VITA also implements both long- and short-term projects to promote enterprise development and
transfer technology.
                          UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE
PRODUCED BY: George Rubin
REVIEWED BY: Robert H. Dickman
             Warren D. Winterson
             Vernon L. Singleton
1. The Product
The product is grape juice that has not been fermented, sweetened,
or concentrated. It is shipped in 50-55 gallon drums or other
bulk containers to bottling plants, or can be bottled on site.
most grape juice is white and of different mild flavors, depending
on whether the variety is European wine grapes (Vitis
vinifera) or species (Vitis abrusca).
2. The Facility
This profile describes a plant operating with one shift and
producing 125,000 gallons of grape juice a year, and another that
produces 260,000 gallons a year.
The plant should be located near a grape-growing area to provide
an assured and adequate supply of grape.
Prevention of fermentation of grape juice is difficult. Either
some form of pasteurization or very cold storage (below freezing)
and transit will be necessary.
Total capital requirements are high and some skilled labor is
needed. The general increase in the consumption of fruit juices
make the prospects for a business of this kind seem reasonably
good, as long as a reasonable local market exists.
since the juice has to settle or be clarified by other methods,
initial working capital is fairly high. No income should be
expected to accrue from sales during the first few months of
1.  Outlook
    A.   Economic
The market is a local one due in large part to excess grape
production in much of Europe and the economical production of
concentrated juice for easier shipment and preservation.
    B.   Technical
    Prevention of fermentation and other spoilage is not easy
with single strength grape juice. Some basic knowledge of the
microbiology of foods is needed by the manager.
There are several alternatives to choose from in producing this
product. Used equipment of the sort described is frequently
2.  Manufacturing Equipment Flexibility
Although the equipment described ere is specialized for grape
handling, with minor additions and sufficient labor, it can
process other fruit juices. Concentrates can be produces with the
addition of evaporator.
3.  Knowledge Base
A basic understanding of yeast, mold, and bacterial spoilage is
essential. However, with grape juice such spoilage should not
lead to health hazard but only product deterioration.
4.  Quality Control
Microbial and sensory chemical analysis are required to check
sugar, acid, pH, color, clarity, and perhaps acetic acid,
ethanol, and sulfur dioxide (S02). Incoming fruit should be
checked, and an operation log should be kept on the pasteurizer.
5.  Constraints and Limitations
In temperate climates the grape harvesting season is short.
Therefore, plant capacity must be large enough to produce,
process, and store within a few weeks the juice for a year's
sales. Storage of single strength juice must be free from any
spoilage (mold, bacteria, or yeast). Tropical countries can
spread their harvest, but usually will have more disease problems.
1. Users
Ordinarily the profit is made at the bottler-retail end. If
possible, the bulk processing should be combined with the
bottling operation or at least closely coordinated.
2. Suppliers
A minimal supply of grapes f rom local grape growers at economically
satisfactory prices is essential.
3. Sales Channels and Methods
Sales will be made mostly to bottling plants, depending on the
number of potential customers, the quantity they are willing to
acquire, and the availability of a good transport system.
4. Geographic Extent of Market
Plant must be located close to the supply of grapes. The finished
product is bulky and must be packaged for transport; it may need
to be refrigerated. A nationwide distribution is possible; the
plant would not ship abroad, except possibly into immediately
surrounding areas of neighboring countries.
5. Competition
Domestic: Other fruit juices possibly imported, may compete,
Export: Plant will not ship abroad because competition from well-established
large foreign firms may be too strong, especially
since concentrates have been developed that considerably reduce
shipping costs.
6. Market Capacity
Consumption will largely depend on the income levels and drinking
habits of the population. Bottling plants serving a population of
four to five million might absorb the output of the plant.
 Requirements                                Annual output:
                    (1 shift)          125,000 gals.    260,000 gals.
1.  Infrastructure, Utilities          Small Plant      Medium Plant
    Land                                16,000 sq.ft.    40,000 sq.ft.
    Building               one story     60'x80'           80'x100'
    Power       connected load apx.      20 hp             100 hp
     Fuel                        about   8,000            20,000 gals.
    Water        potable                3,200,000 gal.   4,000,000 gal.
    Other                              _____________    ____________
    A 28-32[degrees] F holding room  for pressed juice
2.  Major Equipment & Machinery        Small Plant       Medium Plant
    Tools & Machinery
    heating coil
    stainless steel kettle with motor-driven
    continuous screw press
    vacuum belt continuous filter
    pasteurizer/heat exchanger
    Support equipment & parts
    Production tools & equipment
    Furniture, fixtures, and
      office equipment
    Analytical instrumentation
      for quality control
   Pumps & plumbing
   Electrical wiring
   Control panels
of equipment & machinery only           $650,000       $ 900,000
(*)Based on $US 1987 prices. The costs provided are estimates and
are given only to provide a general idea for machinery costs;
they are not intended to be used as absolute prices. Costs still
need to be determined on a case by case basis.
3.  Materials & Supplies                Small Plant        Medium Plant
    Raw Materials
      grapes                              1,500 tons        3,120 tons
    lubricants & hand tools
    cellulose, pressing aid
    diatomaceous earth for
        polish filtration
    maintenance, spare parts
    office supplies
    Packaging                             4,750
    drums, 55 gal.
    (may be used 5 or 6 times before wearing
    out - available in S.S. and in plastic)
4.  Labor                              Small Plant       Medium Plant
    (120 days)                               1                  2
    (60 days)                                4                  8
    (120 days)                               2                  4
    (120 days)                               1                  2
    Manager (120 days)                      1                  1
    Office (120 days)                       1                  1
5.  Distribution/Supply flow           Small Plant       Medium Plant
    Amount in per day                      Varies seasonally and daily
    Amount out per day
External transport facilities - grapes delivered at plant.
Shipments about 750 tons per month. A good highway is needed.
6. Market Requirements                 Small Plant       Medium Plant
PROCESS DESCRIPTION (see plant layout>

ugjx6.gif (600x600)

1. Diagram
2.  Remarks
The steps in processing unfermented grape juice are:
1.  Grape samples are tested
2.  Grapes are stemmed and crushed
3.  Peptic Enzyme is added to must (the newly pressed juice)
4.  Grape must is pressed
5.  Solid particles are filtered out
6.  Juice is pasteurized
7.  Juice is stored at low temperature until bottled
Note that the waste products--the seed & oil--can be used for
compost or for other by-products.
Unless otherwise stated, these addresses are in the United
1.  Technical Manuals & Textbooks
General Viticulture, by A.J. Winkler et al, University of
California Press, Berkeley, California. 1974. Devoted to all
aspects of the culture of grapes.
Technology of Winemaking.  4th Edition, Amerine et al. AVI
Publishing Co., Westport, Connecticut.
Sensory Evaluation Guide for Testing Food and Beverace products.
by A.E. Dethmers et al, Institute for Food Technology, IFT
Reprint Department, P.O. Box 94332, Chicago, Illinois 60690.
2.  Periodicals
Wines & Vines (Monthly and Directory)
1800 Lincoln Ave.
San Rafael, California 94901-2398
Food Technology,
221 N. LaSalle Street
Chicago, Illinois 60601
(312) 782-8424.
3.  Trade Associations
Institute for Food Technology
P.O. Box 94332
Chicago, Illinois 60690
4.  Equipment Suppliers, Engineering companies
Peapack, North Dakota 02977
Filtration equipment
Valley Foundry & Machine Works
PO Box 1626
2510 Southeast Avenue
Fresno, California 93717
Dejuicers & screw press
5.  Directories
Wine & Vines (Directory)
1800 Lincoln Avenue
San Rafael, California 94901-2398
6.  VITA Venture Services
VITA Venture Services, a subsidiary of VITA, provides commercial
services for industrial development. This fee-for-service
includes technology and financial information, technical assistance,
marketing, and joint ventures. For further information,
contact VITA.