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                           INDUSTRY PROFILE #1
                          WOMEN'S BROADCLOTH
                              Prepared By
                            Edward Hochberg
                              Reviewed By
                            George J. Coury
                         Robert W. Rugenstein
                             Published By
    1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500, Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
            Telephone: (703) 276-1800, Fax: (703) 243-1865
                  Telex 440192 VITAUI, Cable: VITAINC
           Internet, Bitnet. vita@gmuvax
                      Women's Broadcloth Dresses
                          ISBN: 0-86619-288-3
                [C]1987, Volunteers in Technical Assistance
                           INDUSTRY PROFILES
This Industry Profile is one of a series briefly describing small or medium-sized industries. The
Profiles provide basic information for starting manufacturing plants in developing nations.
Specifically, they provide general plant descriptions, financial, and technical factors for their
operation, and sources of information and expertise. The series is intended to be useful in
determining whether the industries described warrant further inquiry either to rule out or to
decide upon investment. The underlying assumption of these Profiles is that the individual
making use of them already has some knowledge and experience in industrial development.
Dollar values are listed only for machinery and equipment costs, and are primarily based on
equipment in the United States. The price does not include shipping costs or import-export taxes,
which must be considered and will vary greatly from country to country. No other investment
costs are included (such as land value, building rental, labor, etc.) as those prices also vary.
These items are mentioned to provide the investor with a general checklist of considerations for
setting up a business.
These profiles should not be substituted for feasibility studies. Before an investment is made in
a plant, a feasibility study should be conducted. This may require skilled economic and
engineering expertise. The following illustrates the range of questions to which answers must
be obtained:
  *   What is the extent of the present demand for the product, and how is it now being
  *   Will the estimated price and quality of the product make it competitive?
  *   What is the marketing and distribution plan and to whom will the product be
  *   How will the plant be financed?
  *   Has a realistic   time schedule for construction, equipment, delivery, obtaining
     materials and supplies, training of personnel, and the start-up time for the plant
     been developed?
  *   How are needed materials and supplies to be procured and machinery and
     equipment to be maintained and repaired?
  *   Are trained personnel available?
  *   Do adequate transportation, storage, power, communication, fuel, water, and
     other facilities exist?
  *   What management controls for design, production, quality control, and other
     factors have been included?
  *   Will the industry complement or interfere with development plans for the area?
  *   What social, cultural, environmental, and technological considerations must be
     addressed regarding manufacture and use of this product?
Fully documented information responding to these and many other questions should be
determined before proceeding with implementation of an industrial project.
              Equipment Suppliers, Engineering Companies
The services of professional engineers are desirable in the design of industrial plants even though
the proposed plant may be small. A correct design is one that provides the greatest economy in
the investment of funds and establishes the basis of operation that will be most profitable in the
beginning and will also be capable of expansion without expensive alteration.
Professional engineers who specialize in industrial design can be found be referring to the
published cards in various engineering magazines. They may also be reached through their
national organizations.
Manufacturers of industrial equipment employ engineers familiar with the design and installation
of their specialized products. These manufacturers are usually willing to give prospective
customers the benefit of technical advice by those engineers in determining the suitability of their
equipment in any proposed project.
Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA) is a private, non-profit, volunteer organization
engaged in international development. Through its varied activities and services, VITA fosters
self-sufficiency by promoting increased economic productivity. Supported by a volunteer roster
of over 5,000 experts in a wide variety of fields, VITA is able to provide high quality technical
information to requesters. This information is increasingly conveyed through low-cost advanced
communication technologies, including terrestrial packet radio and low-earth-orbiting satellite.
VITA also implements both long- and short-term projects to promote enterprise development and
transfer technology.
Prepared By:  Edward Hochberg
Reviewed By:  Robert W. Rugenstein
              George J. Coury
1.  The Product
The manufactured products are women's dresses made from cotton
2.  The Facility
This Profile describes a plant operating with one shift and
manufacturing 72,000 women's dresses a year (1,440/week,
288/day). It also describes a larger plant running a single shift
and producing 104,000 dresses a year.
Other similar products such as women's and girls' blouses, cotton
skirts, and school uniforms can also be made at this facility.
Therefore it is important to have a designer/pattern-maker
readily available to produce properly fitted items as may be
requested by the customer.
The amount of capital required is relatively modest. If the
domestic market can produce the necessary sales and the plant is
efficiently operated and well managed, prospects for this
industry should be very good.
1. Outlook
   A.   Economic
   Depends on existing conditions in the country.
   B.   Technical
   Good reconditioned used sewing machines can perform just as
well as some of the items listed in Section D.2 (page 4). They
can cost half the price of new machines.
2. Manufacturing Equipment Flexibility
The machinery and equipment used to produce dresses are the same
as those generally used throughout the clothing manufacturing
business. Therefore, it is possible and strongly recommended that
other kinds of clothing or other items made from fabric be made
at this plant.  The plant should not be confined to making a
single item.
3.  Knowledge Base
A good business plan is necessary.   A two-to three-year projection
should be prepared and caution taken against overextension.
Management should have:
a) Business experience
b) Knowledge of the field
c) Sources of capital
d) Knowledge of market
e) Knowledge of procurement of material equipment
f) Ability to find government support
The availability of good graders, cutters, and mechanics is also
very important.
4. Quality Control
Quality control is very important, and specifications vary from
company to company and garment to garment.   For example, an
entire order can be rejected for as little an error as the number
of stitches per inch or the tension of the thread.
5. Constraints and Limitations
In the developing nations there is usually an ample labor pool
easily attracted to this industry. However, there is certain to
be a shortage of designers, pattern-makers, and possibly cutters
and mechanics.
Other considerations are:
   --No special transportation requirements, but good highways
     would be helpful.
   --Manager and supervisors should be fully experienced.
   --Some operators will be operating more than one machine.
   --After break-in period, production workers should go on piece
     work rates.
   --Needs reliable electric power system.
1. Users
The users of this product include women and teenage girls.
2. Suppliers
There are in most urban centers sales representatives of equipment
manufacturers and jobbers of fabrics.   It may be too
expensive to go to the United States to look for design, fabrics
and machines.  Hong Kong and Tokyo are also good sources for
these items.
3. Sales Channels and Methods
Sales will be made direct to large stores and to wholesale houses
for distribution to small retail outlets. The market needed will
depend to a great extent upon the purchasing power of the local
One possibility to explore is to contract with U.S. garment
manufacturers that would supply a steady source of work for the
plant.  Large investments in plant and equipment for exports
should not be undertaken unless there is a written commitment
from a U.S. or other manufacturer or contractor who can guarantee
a new outlet for the garments.
4. Geographic Extent of Market
Domestically, these products should be distributed nationally.
5. Competition
Domestic Market - Competition from imported cotton broadcloth
dresses should be minimal. But a significant competition could
come from other plants producing women's cotton dresses, and from
the part of the population engaging in home sewing.
Export Market - The plant size is too small to compete in the
export market or to interest U.S. manufacturers unless there are
similar plants to pool their resources and obtain contract work.
6. Market Capacity
The market capacity is dependent on local conditions.
       Requirements                                Annual Output:
                                dresses:       72,000           104,000
1.   Infrastructure, Utilities            Small Plant          Medium Plant
     Land                                    1/4 acre            1/3 acre
     Building                one story         4,000 s.f.          6,000 s.f.
     Power                                     50-60 hp            60 hp
     Fuel                                   ______________     ____________
     Water                                  ______________     ____________
     Other                                  ______________     ____________
2.   Major Equipment & Machinery            Small Plant         Medium Plant
                                               Units                 Units
     Tools & Machines
     cloth spreader                               (1)                 (1)
     cutting table (60'x 6')                      (1)                  (1)
     cutting machines                             (3)                 (3)
     assorted sewing machines                    (20)                 (30)
       safety stitch                              (2)                 (4)
       overlock                                    (1)                  (2)
       blindstitch                                 (1)                  (2)
       single needle                             (16)                (22)
     belt turners
     buttonhole machine                           (2)                 (2)
     buttonsewer machine                          (2)                 (2)
     Support Equipment & Parts
     furniture & fixtures
     model forms
     hand trucks                                   (1)                  (1)
     steam irons
     chairs & workbenches
     work tables
     storage shelves
     spare parts, tools
       & scissors
     truck/van                                     (1)                  (1)
of equipment & machinery only                   $ 70,0000            $ 82,000
Duty & shipping not included
*Based on $US 1987 prices. The costs provided are estimates and
are given only to provide a general idea for machinery costs;
they are not intended to be used as absolute prices. Costs still
need to be determined on a case by case basis.
*3. Materials & Supplies               Small Plant      Medium Plant
    Raw Materials
    cotton material                  216,000 yards     300,000 yards
    lining                              6,000 yards        8,000 yards
    hooks & eyes
    trimmings, elastic, etc.
    tags and labels                      500 gross         700 gross
    thread (12,000 yd. cones)          1,000 cones        1,500 cones
    office & factory supplies
    hangers & bags                     6,000 dozen       8,500 dozen
    shipping cartons
      (6 dresses/carton)              12,000             17,000
4.  Labor                             Small Plant       Medium Plant
    designer/pattern-maker             1                   1
    cutters                             1                    1
    operators                          20                   30
    pressers                            3                    4
    floor help                          3                    3
    Unskilled                           2                    2
    manager                             1                    1
    office                              1                    1
    plant manager/chauffeur            1                    1
5.  Distribution/Supply flow          Small Plant      Medium Plant
    Amount in/out per day             288 dresses       400 dresses
6.  Market Requirements               Small Plant      Medium Plant
    population                         2-3 million
7.  Other Requirements                Small Plant      Medium Plant
*This includes an approximate amount of materials used over a
period of a year.  It does not mean that a year's supply must be
stored on the premises.
Floor plan should have at least 4,000 square feet of room. Flow of work should
go as indicated. The layout is flexible to provide an efficient work flow.
It should be fairly simple to arrange machines and operations
accordingly. <see plant layout and work flow>

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Unless otherwise stated, these addresses are in the United
1.  Technical Manuals & Textbooks
Fashion Institute of Technology
7 Ave. & 27 St.
New York, New York 10001
Library and Bookstore with full listing of books on design and
pattern-making, and marketing.
2.  Periodicals
Women's Wear Daily & Daily News Record
Fairchild Publications
7 E 12 St.,
New York, New York 10003
Bobbin Magazine
Bobbin International, Inc.
P.O. Box 1986
1110 Shop Road
Columbia, South Carolina 29202
Apparel World
366 Park Ave., South
New York, New York 10016
Apparel Industries Magazine
180 Allen Street
Atlanta, Georgia 30328
3.  Trade Associations
American Apparel Manufacturing Association
2500 Wilson Blvd.
Arlington, Virginia 22201
(703) 524-1864
National Knitwear & Sportswear Association
366 Park Ave., South
New York, New York 10016
4.  Equipment Suppliers, Engineering companies
Hudson Sewing Machine Co.
109 Johnston St.
Newburgh, New York 12550
(dealer in all types of equipment)
The Singer Company
135 Raritan Center Parkway
Edison, New York 08837
 (sewing equipment, cutting room equipment)
Kurt Salmon Associates
350 Fifth Avenue
New York, New York 10118
(management consultant, consulting services)
5.  Directories
Buyers Guide:
A Sourcing Guide for the Apparel Industry
produced by
The Associate Member Congress
American Apparel Manufacturers Association
2500 Wilson Boulevard
Arlington, Virginia 22201
6.  VITA Resources
VITA has a number of documents on file dealing with the textile
and clothing industry. An example:
Selected Information Resources on Textiles.   Compiled by J.A.
Feulner, National Referral Center, Library of Congress, May,
1980. 17 pp. XII-E-1, P.1, 022470, 12.
7.  VITA Venture Services
VITA Venture Services, a subsidiary of VITA, provides commercial
services  for industrial development.  This fee-for-service
includes technology and financial information, technical assistance,
market, and joint ventures. For further information,
contact VITA.