INDUSTRY PROFILE #6
George J. Coury
Robert W. Rugenstein
VOLUNTEERS IN TECHNICAL
1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500,
Arlington, Virginia 22209 USA
Telephone: (703) 276-1800, Fax:
Telex 440192 VITAUI, Cable:
[C]1987, Volunteers in Technical
Profile is one of a series briefly describing small or medium-sized industries,
provide basic information for starting manufacturing plants in developing
they provide general plant descriptions, financial, and technical factors for
and sources of information and expertise. The series is intended to be useful
whether the industries described warrant further inquiry either to rule out or
investment. The underlying assumption of these Profiles is that the individual
making use of
them already has some knowledge and experience in industrial development.
are listed only for machinery and equipment costs, and are primarily based on
the United States. The price does not include shipping costs or import-export
which must be
considered and will vary greatly from country to country. No other investment
included (such as land value, building rental, labor, etc.) as those prices
are mentioned to provide the investor with a general checklist of considerations
setting up a
profiles should not be substituted for feasibility studies. Before an
investment is made in
a plant, a
feasibility study should be conducted. This may require skilled economic and
expertise. The following illustrates the range of questions to which answers
What is the extent of the present demand for the product, and how is it
Will the estimated price and quality of the product make it competitive.
What is the marketing and distribution plan and to whom will the product
How will the plant be financed?
Has a realistic time schedule for construction, equipment, delivery,
materials and supplies, training of
personnel, and the start-up time for the plant
How are needed materials and supplies to be procured and machinery and
equipment to be maintained and repaired?
* Are trained personnel
Do adequate transportation, storage, power, communication, fuel, water,
other facilities exist?
What management controls for design, production, quality control, and
factors have been included?
Will the industry complement or interfere with development plans for the
What social, cultural, environmental, and technological considerations
addressed regarding manufacture and use
of this product?
documented information responding to these and many other questions should be
before proceeding with implementation of an industrial project.
Equipment Suppliers, Engineering
of professional engineers are desirable in the design of industrial plants even
plant may be small. A correct design is one that provides the greatest economy
investment of funds and establishes the basis of operation that will be most
profitable in the
will also be capable of expansion without expensive alteration.
engineers who specialize in industrial design can be found be referring to the
cards in various engineering magazines. They may also be reached through their
of industrial equipment employ engineers familiar with the design and
specialized products. These manufacturers are usually willing to give
benefit of technical advice by those engineers in determining the suitability
any proposed project.
Technical Assistance (VITA) is a private, non-profit, volunteer organization
international development. Through its varied activities and services, VITA
by promoting increased economic productivity. Supported by a volunteer roster
of over 5,000
experts in a wide variety of fields, VITA is able to provide high quality technical
to requesters. This information is increasingly conveyed through low-cost
technologies, including terrestrial packet radio and low-earth-orbiting
implements both long- and short-term projects to promote enterprise development
by: Edward Hochberg
by: Richard W. Rugenstein
George J. Coury
are work pants made from cotton denim. These blue
four pockets, with brass rivets used at pocket
where the stress is greatest. Waist sizes range from 28
to 44 inches,
while lengths are 30 to 36 inches.
also fashion junior and children's jeans that can be
made with the
same equipment and similar materials.
describes one plant operating with one shift and
dozens of blue jeans a year, and another that
22,000 dozens a year.
especially important for a small factory to be able to
varied styles. Therefore, it is
imperative to have a
available to quickly produce properly
as requested by the customer.
requirements for this plant are moderate and little
skill is needed. The product is in wide
competition is often keen. Production appears suitable for
Depends on the conditions in country.
Good used reconditioned sewing machines can
perform just as
well as some
of the items listed on page 4. They can cost half
the price of
Manufacturing Equipment Flexibility
and equipment used to produce blue jeans are
the kind used in the apparel industry to manufacture
of clothing. Therefore, this plant could manufacture
wearable items or other fabric products.
business plan is necessary. A two to three-year projection
prepared and caution taken against overextension.
a) Business experience
b) Knowledge of field
c) Sources of capital
d) Knowledge of market
e) Knowledge of procurement of material
f) Capability to find government support
control is very important, and specifications vary from
company and garment to garment. For example, an
can be rejected for as little an error as the number
per inch or the tension of the thread.
Constraints and Limitations
countries there is usually an ample labor pool that
adapted to this industry. However,
there may be a
designers, pattern-makers, cutters, and mechanics.
--There are no special transportation
requirements, but good
highways would be helpful.
--Manager and supervisors should be fully
--Some operators will be operating more
than one machine.
--After break-in period, production workers
should go on piece
--Experienced cutters and
designer/pattern-maker are required.
In most urban
centers there are sales representatives of equipment
and jobbers of fabrics. It may be too
go to the United States or other western nations to
design, fabrics and machines. Hong Kong
and Tokyo are
sources for these items.
Channels and Methods
Sales may be
made direct to large stores and to wholesale houses
distribution to small retail outlets. The market needed will
depend to a
great extent upon the purchasing power of the local
One path to
explore is contracting with U.S. garment manufacturers
supply a steady source of work for the plant.
large investments in plant and equipment for exports
should not be
undertaken unless there is a written commitment
manufacturer or contractor who can guarantee an outlet
Extent of Market
Product is easy to ship and transport costs are
in relation to product value. Market may be nationwide.
A. Domestic Market
Very small makers and imports may provide
B. Export Market
The plant is relatively small and might
have great difficulty
with large-scale plants or with exports from areas
is plentiful and cheap.
conditions a population of about a million would
large enough to support production of a small plant.
AND PLANT REQUIREMENTS
dozen 22,000 dozen
Building (one story)
connected load 100 hp
Fuel (for steam, heat)
Water (processing, sanitation, fire)
Major Equipment & Machinery
Tools & Machines
cutting machine (heavy duty)
button stamp machine
double needle machine
safety stitch machine
single needle machine
double needle flatbed
Support Equipment & Parts
furniture & fixtures
20 hp boiler
chairs & workbenches
spare parts & tools
& machinery only
$US 1987 prices. The costs provided are estimates and
only to provide a general idea f or machinery costs;
they are not
intended to be used as absolute prices. Costs still
need to be
determined on a case by case basis.
Materials & Supplies
thread (12,000 yd. cones)
Amount in/out per day
includes an approximate amount of materials used over a
period of a
year. It does not mean that a year's
supply must be
stored on the
<see plant layout and work flow>
indicates an orderly f low of work f rom cutting to
goods. It should be fairly simple to arrange machines
operations according to need. An area
should be set aside
and pattern making.
otherwise stated, these addresses are in the United
Technical Manuals & Textbooks
Institute of Technology 7th Ave. and 27th St.
New York, New
Bookstore with full listing of books on design and
Who Puts the
Blue in the Jeans? Adventures in the World of Work.
Inc. 1976. 73 pp.
Daily & Daily News Record
7 E 12th
New York, New
PO Box 1986
South Carolina 29202
New York, New
Apparel Manufacturing Association
Knitwear & Sportswear Association
New York, New
Equipment Suppliers, Engineering Companies
all types of equipment)
equipment, cutting room equipment)
New York, New
consultants, consulting services)
Guide for the Apparel Industry,
The Associate Membership Congress
Apparel Manufacturers Association
VITA has on
file a number of documents related to the textile and
industry. For example:
Information Resources on Textiles.
Compiled by J.A.
National Referral Center, Library of Congress, May,
1980. 17 pp.
XII-E-1, P. 1, 022470, 12.
Services, a subsidiary of VITA, provides commercial
industrial development. This fee-for-service
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and joint ventures. For further