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North Africa and Middle East

Individual Countries
Individual countries



AFSHAR, Haleh (ed.) (1993)

Women in Middle East: Perceptions, Realities and Struggles for Liberation, Macmillan Publishers, Basingstoke.

ALI, Parveen Shaukat (1975)

Status of Women in the Muslim World, A Study in the Feminist Movements in Turkey, Egypt, Iran and Pakistan, Aziz Publishers, Lahore.

AL-QAZZAZ, Ayad (1977)

Women in the Middle East and North Africa, An Annotated Bibliography, Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Texas, Austin.

BROWN, Sarah Graham (1988)

Images of Women in the Middle East, Quartet Books.

BYBEE, Dorothy Ann. (n. d.)

Muslim Peasant Women in the Middle East, their Sources and Uses of Power, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Indiana, United States.

CHAMIE, Mary (1985)

Women of the World: Near East and North Africa, Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington D.C.

FERNEA, Elizabeth Warnock (1985)

Women and the Family in the Middle East: New Voices of Change, University of Texas Press: Austin.

FERNEA, Elizabeth Warnock & BERZIGAN, Basima Qattan (eds.) (1977)

Middle Eastern Muslim Women Speak, University of Texas Press, London.

GOCEK, Fatma Muge & BALAGHI, Shiva (eds.) (1994)

Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East: Tradition, Identity and Power, Columbia University Press, New York.

HICKS, Esther K. (1993)

Infibulation: Female Mutilation in Islamic North-Eastern Africa, Transaction Publishers.

JABBRA, Joseph G. & JABBRA, Nancy W. (1992)

Women and Development in the Middle East and North Africa, Brill, Leiden.

MARSHALL, S.E.(1984)

'Politics and Female Status in North Africa- A Reconsideration of Development Theory' in Economic Development and Cultural Change, 32 (3), 499-524.

MESSICK, B. (1987)

'Subordinate Discourse- Women, Weaving and Gender Relations in North Africa' in American Ethnologist, 14 (2), 210-225.

MINAI, Naila (1981)

Women in Islam: Tradition and Transition in the Middle East, Murray Co., London.

MOGHADAM, Valentine M. (1993)

Modernizing Women Gender and Social Change in the Middle East, L. Reinner, Boulder.

MOSKOFF, W. (1982)

'Women and Work in Israel and the Islamic Middle East' in Quarterly Review of Economics and Business, 22 (4), 89-104.

OBERMEYER, C. M.(1992)

'Islam, Women and Politics- The Demography of Arab Countries' in Population and Development Review, 18 (1), 33-60.

OBERMEYER, Carla Makhlouf (ed.) (1995)

Gender, Family and Population in the Middle East: Policies in Context, American University in Cairo Press, Cairo.

OTTO, Ingeborg & SCHMIDT-DUMONT, Marianne (1982)

Women in the Middle East and North Africa, A Selected Bibliography, Deutsches Orient Institut, Hamburg.

PAPPS, I. (1992)

'Women, Work and Well- being in the Middle East - An Outline of the Relevant Literature' in Journal of Development Studies, 28 (4), 595-615.

SALMAN, Magida (et al.) (1987)

Women in the Middle East, Zed Books, London.

SCARCE, Jennifer M. (1987)

Women's Costumes in the Near and Middle East, Unwin Hyman.

SHAABAN, Bouthaina (1988)

Both Right and Left Handed, Arab Women Talk About their Lives, Women's Press, London.

SHARONI, Simona (1994)

Gender and the Israeli- Palestinian Conflict: The Politics of Women's Resistance, Contemporary Issues in the Middle East Series, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse.

TABUTIN, D. (1991)

'High Mortality Rates among Women in North Africa from 1965-the Present Day- Descriptive Aspects' in Population, 46 (4), 833-854.

Gender and Education

AL-RUBAIY, A. A. (et al.) (1984)

'Implications for Education and Child Rearing: The Role of Women in the Middle East' in School Psychology International, 5 (3), 167-174.

EL-SANABARY, Nagat (1989)

Determinants of Women's Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Illustrations from Seven Countries, PHREE Background Paper Series, World Bank, Washington D.C.

MALIK, L. P. (1995)

'Social and Cultural Determinants of the Gender Gap in Higher Education in the Islamic World' in Journal of Asian and African Studies, 30 (3-4), 181-193

Individual Countries

Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates



ADAMSON, Kay (1975)

Perspectives on the Position of Women in Algeria, University of Leeds, School of Economic Studies Discussion Paper, Leeds.

BENALLEGUE, Nora (1983)

'Algerian Women in the Struggle for Independence and Reconstruction' in International Social Science Journal, 35 (4), 703-717.

CHERIET, B. (1987)

'Specific Socialism' and Illiteracy among Women: A Comparative Study of Algeria and Tanzania, Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Education, London, United Kingdom.

DOMINELLI, Lena (1987)

Love and Wages: Impact of Imperialism, State Intervention and Women's Domestic Labour on Workers' Control in Algeria, 1962-72, Novata Press.

JANSEN, William Hugh & WILHELMINA, Helena Maria (1987)

Women Without Men: Gender and Marginality in Maimuna Town, Algeria, Brill, Leiden.

KNAUSS, P.R. (1987)

Persistence of Patriarchy: Class, Gender and Ideology in Twentieth Century Algeria, Praeger, London.

LAZREG, M. (1988)

'Feminism and Difference- The Perils of Writing as a Woman on Women in Algeria' in Feminist Studies, 14 (1), 81-107.

LAZREG, M. (1990)

'Gender and Politics in Algeria - Unraveling the Religious Paradigm' in Signs, 15 (4), 755-780.

LAZREG, Marnia (1994)

The Eloquence of Silence, Algerian Women in Question, Routledge, New York.

MARSHALL, S. E. & STOKES, R.G.(1981)

'Tradition and the Veil- Female Status in Tunisia and Algeria' in Journal of Modern African Studies, 19 (4), 625-646.

TAHON, M.B. (1982)

'The Employment of Women in Algeria' in Canadian Journal of African Studies, 16 (1), 43-66.

VIDALHALL, J. (1995)

'Why Women (Girls and Women are Killed by Islamic Extremists in Algeria)'? in Index on Censorship, 24 (4), 94-95.



FAKHRO, Munira A. & AHMED, Munira (1990)

Women at Work in the Gulf, A Case Study of Bahrain, Kegan Paul International, London.

FORDYCE, E. J. (et al.) (1983)

'Changing Roles of Arab Women in a Rapidly Developing Nation- The Case of Bahrain' in Population Index, 49 (3), 399.

SEIKALY, M. (1994)

'Women and Social Change in Bahrain' in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 26 (3), 415-426.

Gender and Education

AL-MISNAD, S. A. (1984)

The Development of Modern Education in Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar: With Special Reference to Education of Women and their Position in Modern Gulf society, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Durham, United Kingdom.



HOUSE, W.J.(1983)

'Occupational Segregation and Discriminatory Pay- The Position of Women in the Cyprus Labour Market' in International Labour Review, 122 (1), 75-93.




'Women and Mass Media in Africa: Case Studies of Sierra Leone, the Niger and Egypt' in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, 15, 198-221.

AL-ALI, Nadje Sadig (1994)

Gender Writing/Writing Gender: Representation of Women in a Selection of Modern Egyptian Literature, American University in Cairo Press, Cairo.

ALI, Parveen Shaukat (1975)

Status of Muslim Women in the World, A Study in the Feminist Movement in Turkey, Egypt, Iran and Pakistan, Aziz Publishers, Lahore.

ANKER, R. & ANKER, M.(1989)

'Measuring the Female Labour Force in Egypt' in International Labour Review, 128 (4), 511-520.

ASSAAD, M.B. (1983)

'Female circumcision in Egypt- Social Implications, Current Research and Prospects for Change' (Reprinted), in Behavioural Engineering, 38 (1), 33-49.

BADRAN, Margot (1995)

Feminists, Islam and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt, Princeton University Press.

BARON, Beth (1994)

Women's Awakening in Egypt: Culture, Society and Press, Yale University Press, London.

DICKERSCHEID, Jean D. (et al.) (1988)

'Gender Concept, Development and Pre-School Aged Children in the United States and Egypt' in Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 18 (11-1), 669-77.

DUVAL, S. (1989)

'When Men are Away- New Roles for Women in Egypt' in Sociologisk Forskning, 26 (1), 5-23.


Egyptian Women in Social Development: A Resource Guide, American University in Cairo Press, Cairo.

FAUST, K. (et al.)(1992)

'Young Women Members of the Islamic -Revival- Movement in Egypt' in Muslim World, 82 (1-2), 55-65.

INHORN, Marcia C. (1996)

Infertility and Patriarchy: Cultural Politics of Gender and Family Life in Egypt, University of Pennsylvania Press.

KADER, Soha Abdel (1987)

Egyptian Women in a Changing Society, 1899-1987, L. Reinner, Boulder.

MELEIS, A. I. (et al.) (1994)

'Veiled, Voluminous and Devalued- Narrative Stories about Low Income Women from Brazil, Egypt and Colombia' in Advances in Nursing Science, 17 (2), 1-15.

MORSY, Soheir (1993)

Gender, Sickness and Healing in Rural Egypt: Ethnography in Historical Context, Conflict and Social Change Series, Westview Press, Oxford.

NELSON Cynthia (ed.) (1977)

Women, Health and Development, Cairo Papers in Social Science, Monograph 1, American University in Cairo, Cairo.

SHAMI, Seteney (1990)

Women in the Arab World: Work Patterns and Gender Relations in Egypt, Jordan and Sudan, Berg Publishers.

SINGERMAN, Diane & HOODFAR, Homa (eds.) (1993)

Development, Change and Gender in Cairo: A View from the Household, Indiana University Press.

SOLIMAN, Amal Sanaa (1989)

Studies in Female Labour Supply: Egypt, Ph.D. Thesis, The City University, London, United Kingdom.

STAUTH, G. (1990)

'Women, Properties and Migration - Access to Land and Local conflicts in Rural Egypt' in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 140 (1), 32-50.

SULLIVAN, Earl L. (1986)

Women in Egyptian Public Life, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse.

TAPLIN, R. (1987)

'Women and Work in Egypt- A Social Historical Perspective, in International Sociology, 2 (1), 61-76.

TOTH, J. (1991)

'Pride, Purdah, or Paychecks- what Maintains the Gender Division of Labour in Rural Egypt' in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 23 (2), 213-236.

ZUHUR, Sherifa (1992)

Revealing Reveiling: Islamist Gender Ideology in Contemporary Egypt, Series in Middle East Studies, University of New York Press.

Gender and Education


'Higher Education and Occupational Status of Women in Egypt' in Journal of Asian and African Studies, 25 (3-4), 213-218.

DARWISH, M. R. M.(1962)

Factors Affecting the Education of Women in the U.A.R. (Egypt): A Historical and Comparative Study of Women's Education Below the University Level, M. A. Thesis, University of London, United Kingdom.

HORBER, Monica (1991)

The Impact of Islam on Women's Education in Egypt, University of Toronto.

SCHLEIFER, Aliah (1994)

'Muslim Women and Education: Historical Foundations and Twentieth Century Egypt' in Muslim Education Quarterly, 11 (3), 5-15.



AFKHAMI, Mahnaz & FRIEDAL, Erika (1994)

In the Eye of the Storm: Women in Post- Revolutionary Iran, IB Tauris.

AFSHAR, H. (1985)

'The Legal, Social and Political Position of Women in Iran' in International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 13 (1), 47-60.


'Socioeconomics of Female Headed Households in Shiraz, Iran' in International Journal of the Sociology of the Family, 11 (1), 99-104.

AGHAJANIAN, A. (1992) ALI, Parveen Shaukat (1975)

'Status of Women and Fertility in Iran' in Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 23 (3), 361-374. Status of Women in the Muslim World, A Study in the Feminist Movements in Turkey, Egypt, Iran and Pakistan, Aziz Publishers, Lahore.


'A Picture of the Deteriorating Situation for Women in Iran' in Sociologisk Forskning, 30 (3), 47-62.

FATHI, Asghar (ed.) (1985)

Women and the Family in Iran, Social, Economic Studies of the Middle East, Brill, Leiden.

HAERI, S. (1992)

'Temporary Marriage and the State in Iran- An Islamic Discourse on Female Sexuality' in Social Research, 59 (1), 201-223.

HEMMASI, M. (1994)

'Gender and Spatial Population Mobility in Iran' in Geoforum, 25 (2), 213-226.

HIGGINS, P. J. (1985)

'Women in the Islamic Republic of Iran-Legal, Social and Ideological Changes - Comment' in Signs, 10 (3), 477-494.

MILLER, Y. N. (1986)

'Women and Revolution in Iran' in Signs, 11 (4), 806-9.

MOGHADAM, V. M. (1991)

'The Reproduction of Gender Inequality in Muslim Societies - A Case Study of Iran in the 1980s' in World Development, 19 (10), 1335-1349.

MOGHADAM, V. M. (1992)

'Patriarchy and the Politics of Gender in Modernizing Societies - Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan' in International Sociology, 7 (1), 35-53.

MOGHADAM, V. M.(1995)

'Gender and Revolutionary Transformation - Iran 1979 and East Central Europe 1989' in Gender and Society, 9 (3), 328-358.

MOGHISSI, Haideh (1994)

Populism and Feminism in Iran: Women's Struggle in a Male Defined Revolutionary Movement, Macmillan Publishers.

NAJMABADI, Afsaneh (1991)

Women's Autobiographies in Contemporary Iran, Harvard University, Centre for Middle Eastern Studies.

OBERMEYER, C. M.(1994)

'Reproductive Choice in Islam- Gender and State in Iran and Tunisia' in Studies in Family Planning, 25 (1), 41-51.

PAIDAR, Parvin (1995)

Women and Political Process in Twentieth Century Iran, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

RAZAMANI, N. (1993)

'Women in Iran - The Revolution Ebb and Flow' in Middle East Journal, 47 (3) 409-428.

RAZAVI, S. (1994)

'Agrarian Change and Gender Relations in South- East Iran' in Development and Change, 25 (3), 591-634.

SANASARIAN, Eliz (1982)

Women's Rights Movement in Iran: Mutiny, Assessment and Repression from 1900 to Khomeini, Praeger.

SHOAEE, R. S. (1987)

'The Mujahid Women of Iran - Reconciling Culture and Gender' in Middle East Journal, 41 (4), 519-537.

YEGANEH, N. (1993)

'Women, Nationalism and Islam in Contemporary Political Discourse in Iran' in Feminist Review, 44, 3-18.

Gender and Education

MEHRAN, Golnar (1991)

'The Creation of New Muslim Woman: Female Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran' in Convergence, 24 (4), 42-52.

TOHIDI, Nayareh (1984)

Sex Differences in Achievement/Career, Motivation of Iranian Boys and Girls' in Sex- roles, 11 (5-6), 467-84.



ABU-HAIDAR, Farida (1989)

Are Iraqi Women More Prestige Conscious than Men? Sex Differentiation in Baghdadi Arabic' in Language in Society, 18 (4), 471-81.

AL-KHAYYAT, Sana Ayoub Sabri (1985)

The Position of Iraqi Women within the Family: With Particular Reference to Married Women, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Keele, United Kingdom.

KHAYYAT, Sana (1990)

Honour and Shame: Women in Modern Iraq, Saqi Books.

MUSTAFA, Adnan Yasin (1990)

Women and Development in an Urban Context: A Study of Women Migrants in Mosil City (Iraq), Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hull, United Kingdom.



BASSON, P. (1981)

'Women and Traditional Food Technologies- Changes in Rural Jordan' in Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 11 (1), 17-23.

BASSON, P (1982)

'Domestic Productivity in Male- Headed and Female- Headed Households of Rural Jordan' in Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 12 (2), 75-78.

SHAMI, Seteney (1990)

Women in the Arab World: Work Patterns and Gender Relations in Egypt, Jordan and Sudan, Berg Publishers.



AL-MUGHNI, Haya (1990)

The Politics of Women's Organisations in Kuwait; A Study of Class, Gender and Patriarchy, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Exeter, United Kingdom.

AL-MUGHNI, Haya (1993)

Women in Kuwait: The Politics of Gender, Saqi Books.

ASHKANANI, Zubaydah Ali M. (1989)

Middle Aged Women in Kuwait: Victims of Change, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Durham, United Kingdom.


'Modernization and Its Discontents- State and Gender in Kuwait' in Middle East Journal, 49 (3), 403-417.

Gender and Education

AL-MISNAD, S. A. (1984)

The Development of Modern Education in Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar: With Special Reference to Education of Women and their Position in Modern Gulf society, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Durham, United Kingdom.

CORNELL, M. Louise (1991)

'Looking Forward by Looking Back: Retrospect on Women, Education and Development in Kuwait' in Muslim Education Quarterly, 8 (3), 13-29.

CORNELL, L.(1976)

Development of Education for Women in Kuwait' in Canadian and International Education, 5 (2), 72-83.

SHAH, N. M. (et al.) (1991)

'Asian Women Workers in Kuwait' in International Migration Review, 25 (3), 651-667.

SOLIMAN, Abdalla M. (1989)

'Sex Differences in the Style of College Students in Kuwait' in Journal of Creative Behaviour, 23 (1), 38-45.



BRYCE, Jennifer (et al.) (1989)

Life Experiences among Low- income Mothers in Beirut, in Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50 (3), 811-819.

CHAMIE, M. J. (1983)

'The Status of Working Women in Lebanon- An Analysis of the 1970s' in Population Index, 49 (3), 399.

JOSEPH, S. (1993)

'Gender and Relationality among Arab Families in Lebanon' in Feminist Studies, 19 (3), 465-486.



ABDALLA, Saleh E. & GIBSON, Janice T. (1984)

'The Relationship of Exposure to American Culture on the Attitude of Libyan Nationals towards the Role of Women in the Work force' in Contemporary Educational Psychology, 9 (3), 294-320.



BAKKER, J. (1992)

'The Rise of Female Healers in the Middle Atlas, Morocco' in Social Science and Medicine, 35 (6), 819-829.

BELHACHMI, Zakia (1987)

'The unfinished assignment: educating Moroccan women for development', in International Review of Education, 33(4), 485-494.

COURBAGE, Y. (1991)

'Economy in Recession, Female Activity in Development, and Mortality Decline in Morocco' in Population, 46 (5), 1277-1283.

DYWER, Daisy Hilse (1978)

Images and Self Images: Male and Female in Morocco, Columbia University Press, New York.

HESSINI, Leila (1994)

'Wearing the Hijab in contemporary Morocco' in GOCEK, F. M. & BALAGHI, S. (eds.), Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East, Columbia University Press, 40-56.

MAHER, Vanessa (1974)

Women and Property in Morocco: Their changing Relation to the Process of Social Stratification in the Middle Atlas, Cambridge University Press, London.


The Emancipation of Women in Morocco- Some Statistics' in Corps Ecrit, 31, 153-162.

ROSANDER, Eva Evers (1991)

Women in Borderland: Managing Muslim Identity where Morocco meets Spain, University of Stockholm.

SPRATT, J. E. (1992)

'Women and Literacy in Morocco' in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 520, 122-132.

Gender and Education

YOUSSEF, Nadia H. (1978)

Women and their Professional Future: An Assessment of Training Needs and Training Programmes in Morocco, Agency of International Development, Washington D. C.

YOUSSEF, Nadia H. (et al.) (1979)

An Evaluation of Non - Formal Educational Programs for Women in Morocco, Agency of International Development, Washington D. C.



EICKELMAN, Christine (1989)

Women and Community in Oman, New York University Press.

WIKAN, Unni (1991)

Behind the Veil in Arabia: Women in Oman, University of Chicago Press.



ABDALLAH, S. L. (1995)

'Palestinian Women in the Camps of Jordan- Interviews' in Journal of Palestine Studies, 24 (4), 62-72.

BENDT, Ingela (1982) (trans. from the Swedish by HENNING, A.)

We Shall Return - Women of Palestine, Zed Press, London.

CERVENAK, C. M. (1994)

'Promoting Inequality- Gender Based Discrimination in UNRWA's Approach to Palestine Refugee Status' in Human Rights Quarterly, 16 (2), 300-374.

KAWAR, Amal (1996)

Daughters of Palestine: Leading Women of Palestine National Movement, State University of New York.

MOORS, Annelies (1996)

Women, Property and Islam: Palestinian Experience, 1920-1990, Cambridge University Press.

SAYIGH, R. (1983)

'Women in Struggle- Palestine' in Third World Quarterly, 5 (4), 880-886.

ZUBI, Nanla Abdo (1994)

Family, Women and Social Change in the Middle East: Palestinian Case, Canadian Scholars Press.



AL-MUHANNADI, Muneera (1992)

A Socio-linguistic Study of Women's Speech in Qatar, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Essex, United Kingdom.

Gender and Education

ABDULLA, Sara Jassim A. (1990)

Education, Social Structure and Social Change in the State of Qatar: With Reference to Education, Recruitment and Career Structures of Women Secondary School Headteachers, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wales, United Kingdom.

AL KAABI, A. H. M. (1988)

The Effect of Education and Work on Women's Position in Qatar, M.A. Thesis, University of Durham, United Kingdom.

AL-MISNAD, S. A. (1984)

The Development of Modern Education in Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar: With Special Reference to Education of women and their Position in Modern Gulf society, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Durham, United Kingdom.

Saudi Arabia


ALMETAIR, Amer Nasser (1987)

The Impact of Social Economic Change on Saudi Urban Transportation, Eastern Region: Female Transportation, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Durham, United Kingdom.

ALMUNAJJED, Mona (1995)

Women in Saudi Arabia Today, Macmillan Publishers.

ALSUWAIGH, S. A. (1989)

'Women in Transition- The Case of Saudi Arabia' in Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 20 (1), 67-78.

AREBI, Saddeka (1994)

Women and Words in Saudi Arabia: The Politics of Literary Discourse, Columbia University Press.

ERTURK, Y. (1991)

'Convergence and Divergence in the Status of Moslem Women - The Cases of Turkey and Saudi Arabia' in International Sociology, 6 (3), 307-320.

RAWAF, M. (1990)

'The Changing Status of Women in Management in the Public Administration in Saudi Arabia' in Public Administration and Development, 10 (2), 209-219.

RAWAF, Monirah (1991)

Women in Public Administration in Saudi Arabia: The Need for Reform, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bath, United Kingdom.

Gender and Education

AL-HARIRI, Rafeda (1987)

'Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia' in Comparative Education, 23 (1), 51-57.

AL-RAWAF, Haya Saad (1990)

An Open University for Women in Saudi Arabia: Problems and Prospects, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Loughborough, United Kingdom.

AL-RAWAF, Haya Saad & SIMMONS, Cyril (1991)

'The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia' in Comparative Education, 27 (3), 287-295.

AL-SHARHAN, Jamal (1994)

'The Use of Audio Visual Aids in Intermediate Stage Schools for Girls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia' in British Journal of Educational Technology, 25 (2), 84-90.

EL SANABARY, N. (1993)

'The Education and Contribution of Women Health Care Professionals in Saudi Arabia- The Case of Nursing' in Social Science and Medicine, 37 (11), 1331-1343.

EL SANABARY, Nagat (1994)

'Female Education in Saudi Arabia and the Reproduction of Gender Division' in Gender and Education, 6 (2), 141-150.

MALLOUH, Faizah (1991)

Prospective Female Teachers and their Training at Junior Colleges in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Exeter, United Kingdom.

MUJAHID, Ghaz (1987)

'Education for Girls in Saudi Arabia' in Muslim Education Quarterly, 4 (3), 45-74.


Gender and Education

ALRABAA, Sami (1985)

'Sex division of labour in Syrian school textbooks', International Review of Education, XXXI (3), 335-348.



ELMECHAT, S. (1982)

'Emancipation, Power and Women of Tunisia (The Creation of Union Nationale des Femmes de Tunisie' in Temps Modernes, 39 (436), 975-1010.

HAYS, P. A. & ZOUARI, J. (1995)

'Stress, Coping and Mental-Health among Rural, Village and Urban Women in Tunisia' in International Journal of Psychology, 30 (1), 69-90.

MARSHALL, S. E. & STOKES, R.G. (1981)

'Tradition and the Veil- Female Status in Tunisia and Algeria' in Journal of Modern African Studies, 19 (4), 625-646.

OBERMEYER, C. M.(1994)

'Reproductive Choice in Islam - Gender and State in Iran and Tunisia' in Studies in Family Planning, 25 (1), 41-51.

Gender and Education

JONES, Marie Thourson (1980)

'Education of Girls in Tunisia: Policy Implications of the Drive for Universal Enrolment' in Comparative Education Review, 24 (2-Part 2), pS 106-S123.



AKSU, F. (1984)

'The Position of Women in Turkish- Islam Society' in Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde, 132 (9), 704.

ALI, Parveen Shaukat (1975)

Status of Muslim Women in the World, A Study in the Feminist Movement in Turkey, Egypt, Iran and Pakistan, Aziz Publishers, Lahore.

ARAT, Y. (1990)

'Islamic Fundamentalism and Women in Turkey' in Muslim World, 80 (1), 17-23.

ARAT, Yesim. (1990)

Patriarchal Paradox: Women Politicians in Turkey, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.

BERIK, Gunseli (1987)

Women Carpet Weavers in Rural Turkey: Patterns of Employment, Earnings and Status, Women, Work and Development Series, ILO.

BERIK, Gunseli (1989)

'Born in Factories: Women's Labour in Carpet Workshops in Rural Turkey' in International Studies Notes, 14 (3), 62-66.

CINAR, E.M. (1994)

'Unskilled Urban Migrant Women and Disguised Employment - Home Working Women in Istanbul, Turkey' in World Development, 22 (3), 369-380.

GUN, G. (1986)

'The Woman in the Dark Room: Contemporary Women Writers in Turkey' in World Literature Today, 60 (2), 275-279.

HADLER, Sandra (1993)

Turkey: Women in Development, a World Bank Country Paper, World Bank, Washington D. C.

KADIOGLU, A. (1994)

'The Impact of Migration on Gender Roles - Findings of Field Research in Turkey' in International Migration, 32 (4), 533-560.


'Status of Women in Turkey- Cross Cultural Perspectives' in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 18 (4), 485-499.

MARCUS, J. (1987)

'Equal Rites and Women in Turkey' in Mankind, 17 (2), 120-128.

MORVARIDI, B. (1992)

'Gender Relations in Agriculture' in Economic Development and Cultural Change, 40 (3), 567-586.

SUNAR, D.G. (1982)

'Female Stereotypes in the United States and Turkey- An Application of Functional Theory to Perception in Power Relationships' in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 13 (4), 445-460.

TEKELI, S. (1992)

'Europe, European Feminism and Turkey' in Women's Studies International Forum, 15 (1), 139-143.

UNAT, N. Abadan (et al.) (1981)

Women in Turkish Society, Social, Economic and Political Studies in the Middle East, Brill.

Gender and Education

TANSEL, Aysit (1994)

'Wage Employment, Earnings and Returns to Schooling for Men and Women in Turkey' in Economics of Education Review, 13 (4), 305-320.

United Arab Emirates


CREEDON, Pamela. J. (et al.) (1995)

'Women and Public Relations Education and Practice in the United Arab Emirates' in Public Relations Review, 21 (1), 59-76.

JOSEPH, S. (1986)

'The Women of the United Arab Emirates' in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 18 (4), 501-509. (Review of Soffan, q.v.)

SOFFAN, Linda Usra (1980)

The Women of the United Arab Emirates, Croom Helm, London.

Gender and Education

AL-HAMMADI, Abdulaziz A.A. (1995)

Role conflict among Working Women in the United Arab Emirates and its Relationship with Personality Traits and Socio-economic Factors: A Study of Female Preparatory and Secondary School Teachers, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hull, United Kingdom.

CREEDON, Pamela J. (et al.) (1995)

'Women and Public Relations Education and Practice in the United Arab Emirates' in Public Relations Review, 21(1), 59-76.




Changing Veils - Women and Modernization in North Yemen, Croom Helm, London.

MOLYNEUX, Maxine (1982)

State Policies and the Position of Women Workers in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, ILO, Geneva.

MOLYNEUX, M. (1985)

'Legal Reform and Socialist Revolution in Democratic Yemen- Women and the Family' in International Journal of Sociology of Law, 13 (2), 147-172.

Gender and Education

DUBOK, H.(1990)

The Recruitment of Female Agricultural Extension Agents in Yemen Arab Republic, M. Phil Thesis, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.



MALIK, Lynda P. (1995) 'Social and cultural determinants of the gender gap in Higher Education in the Islamic World', Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 30, 3-4, p. 181-193

This study analysed gender stratification in higher education in Iran, Turkey and Pakistan and found that cultural factors (particularly religion) were much better predictors than structural factors. Realignments of state-class relations were found to be unrelated to the size of the higher education gender gap, which was maximised by the institutionalisation of Islamic religious codes. Malik chose to focus on three countries which represent significantly different aspects of the Islamic tradition. Although Islam emphasises obedience & the conservative view that the proper role of women is in the family rather than the public sphere, and although this creates difficulties for women contemplating independent careers in many Islamic societies, "the nature and the severity of the problems faced by professional women vary from one country to another and are influenced by many factors", (p184). Malik lists among these factors the sacred/secular orientation of the government, the literacy of the population, the class structure of the society and the economic conditions prevalent in the country.

Each of these factors is then examined in the case studies of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, which whilst nominally Muslim, differ in fundamental ways. In Turkey the gender gap in higher education is minimal. Pakistan and Iran both have high levels of gender stratification in universities. Malik says that these may be explained by the overall low literacy levels prevailing there as well as by the attempts of religious authorities to limit women's participation in public life.

State/class structure also varies: Turkey experienced revolution without however the existing class system being modified. There the traditional elite remained in place, unlike in Iran. In Pakistan there has been no revolution and the traditional elites have retained their position.

The sacred/secular orientation of the three countries also differs. Turkey is officially secular, Iran is a theocratic state and Pakistan is a democracy where fundamentalists, despite not winning elections, nevertheless influence government to institutionalize their Islamizing programmes.

Malik's analysis, she feels, points to cultural factors being more important than structural ones in determining gender stratification in higher education. In Pakistan and Iran, both with a high degree of gender stratification, Islamic fundamentalist policies have been institutionalized despite the facts that in Pakistan the traditional elites are in power but in Iran have been replaced. In Turkey the degree of gender stratification is low, the state is secular, and the elites remain. In the three countries under consideration, "the sacred/secular dimension consistently overrides class/structural considerations", (p191).

MOGHADAM, Valentine M. (1993) Modernising Women: gender and social change in the Middle East, Lynne Riener, Boulder.

This book, in the series Women and Change in the Developing World, has rapidly found a place as essential reading on student booklists. It deals with social change in the Middle East, North Africa and Afghanistan and "its impact on women's role and status, and women's responses to, and involvement in, change processes", (p.xiii). This is a study from a sociological perspective and the author states in her preface -

"Myths and stereotypes abound regarding women, Islam, and the Middle East. This book is intended in part to "normalise" the Middle East by underscoring the salience of structural determinants other than religion. It focuses on the major social-change processes in the region to show how women's lives are shaped not only by "Islam" and "culture", but also by economic development, the state, class location & the world system", (p.xiii).

There are chapters on economic and political development, and Islamist movements, and a whole chapter each is devoted to the women of Iran and Afghanistan in the two detailed case studies.

Education is considered in the chapter dealing with 'Women, Patriarchy and the Changing Family'. Moghadam points out that -

'The persistence or modernisation of patriarchy notwithstanding, the processes of urbanization, industrialization, proletarianization, and mass schooling - so important to the demographic transition, and the decline of classic patriarchy in the West - are present in the Middle East", (p122).

Factors such as the development of groups of educated middle-class woman and also the rapid growth in numbers of unmarried adolescents (as the age of marriage rises) have had great impact. Education, says Moghadam, seems to be a more important variable in changing the position and self-perception of women than is employment.

She views the social and political changes under way in the Middle East through a "Marxist-feminist sociological lens", (p. 250). Middle-class women with education and jobs are, she feels playing a pivotal role in change. The fundamentalist backlash is directed at this stratum of women "who collectively symbolise social change in the Middle East", (p250).

Individual countries

Saudi Arabia


Seikaly, May "Women and Social Change in Bahrain", International Journal of Middle East Studies, 26, 1994, 415-426.

The dynamics of rapid change in socioeconomic and political structures in the Arab world, especially in the oil-dependent states of the Arabian Gulf such as Bahrain, have created superficially modem-looking societies without solving the dilemmas which Western modernisation has brought. "Change has come into conflict with the traditional cultural value systems tied to religion that control social behaviour", (p. 416). Seikaly shows how the contradiction between modernisation and cultural/religious authenticity explains the ambivalence shown by political leaders and strategists towards development and how, as a wave of sociopolitical conservation spreads all over the Arab world, Islamic fundamentalist thought is dictating limitations to women's social development.

Women's educational and job opportunities began to grow in the 1970's but Seikaly describes this development as mainly an urban, middle class revolution. In rural areas, there was little change. She sees even the changes in the middle class as very limited as women were unable to establish "practical sociocultural rights for all women, regardless of class", (p421). Modernised young women had unconsciously distanced themselves from the realities of their society and with a political approach which was often elitist, could not reach all strata of women by traditional mechanisms. The article goes on to examine women's educational and job opportunities and their position as regards personal-status law. It concludes that after the liberalising experience of the 1970's and 1980's, the modem return to tradition is the more striking, particularly as it is starting to attract women who once considered themselves politically radical and socially liberal.

Saudi Arabia

AL-HARIRI, Rafeda (1987) 'Islam's point of view on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia', Comparative Education, 23 (1), 51-57.


AL RAWAF, Haya Saad and SIMMONS, C (1991) - 'The education of women in Saudi Arabia', Comparative Education, 27 (3), 287 - 295.

These two articles form an interesting pair. Al-Hariri presents the arguments underlying discussion about women's education from a purely Islamic point of view, with supporting quotations from the Quran. She stresses that the Quran encourages rather then forbids the education of women, but that Islam does insist "on keeping women in a position that ensures their stable family life", (p.52). The rapid development of female education in Saudi Arabia since the 1960's has therefore been within a separate educational system directed by the General Presidency for Girls' Education. The economic resources of the country are such that developing parallel systems for boys and girls has not been a financial problem. The rapid development in provision for girls' education is outlined and the author shows how the provision is moulded to be acceptable within an Islamic context:

"the areas of study for male and female students show that the highest number of female students is in the field of humanities, whilst in engineering their number is nil. This indicates that females are taking only subjects which are considered suitable to the nature of Saudi women & in accordance with the basic teaching of Islam", (p.55).

The article by Al Rawaf and Simmons is far fuller and better documented and although it acknowledges the huge growth in the provision of education for girls, it is more objective in pointing out the limitations of that provision in terms of goals and facilities. There are interesting sections on the reinforcement of stereo-typing in textbooks (p. 291) and on Distance Learning for women.