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Individual countries

Burkina Faso
Guinea Bissau
Ivory Coast
Sierra Leone
South Africa



HOLNESS, Marga (trans.) (1984)

Angolan women Building the Future, From National Liberation to Women's Emancipation, Organization of Angolan Women, Zed Books, London.


Gender and Education

AKAPA, Odile & GABA, Lea (1991)

Les Aspects Socio-Culturels de la Fréquentation Scolaire des Filles au Niveau Primaire au Bénin, Cotonou, Centre Béninois de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique, UNESCO, Paris.


Étude des Principales Causes de la Déperdition Scolaire Chez les jeunes Filles dans la Province du Mono, Cotonou, CBRST, UNESCO, Paris.


Étude sur la Déperdition d'Effectifs Scolaires Chez les Jeunes Filles en République Populaire du Bénin, Cotonou, CBN Pour UNESCO, Paris.



BROWN, B. B. (1983)

'The Impact of Male Labour Migration on Women in Botswana' in African Affairs, 82 (328), 367-388.

BUSANG, Condrill M. (1986)

Report on the Socio-Economic Activities of Women in the North-Eastern District Squatter Areas, Ministry of Local Government and Lands, Gaborone, Botswana.

DRIEL, Francien Th. M. Van (1994)

Poor and Powerful, Female Headed Households and Unmarried Motherhood in Botswana, Nijmegen Studies in Development and Cultural Change 16, NICCOS, Nijmegen.

ENGE, Marianne (1985)

Women in Botswana, Dependent Yet Independent, SIDA, Stockholm.

ERICKSON, Christine (1993)

Women in Botswana, An Annotated Bibliography, Women and Law in Southern Africa Trust, Gaborone.

GEISLER, G. (1995)

Troubled Sisterhood: Women and Politics in Southern Africa - Case Studies from Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana' in African Affairs, 94 (377), 545-578.

GLICKMAN, M. (1988)

Thoughts on Certain Relationships between Gender, Kinship and Development among the Tswana of Botswana' in African Studies, 47 (2), 81-87.


The Economic and Demographic Status of Female Headed Households in Rural Botswana' in Economic Development and Cultural Change, 31 (4), 831-859.

LEE, Richard B. (1979)

The Kung San Men, Women and Work in a Foraging Society, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

PETERS, P. (1983)

'Gender Developmental Cycles and Historical Process - A Critique of Recent Research on Women in Botswana' in Journal of Southern African Studies, 10 (1), 100-122.

Gender and Education

CHEYO, Evelyn M. (1993)

Girls' Access, Performance and Achievement in Secondary Education: A Comparative Study of Tanzania, Kenya and Botswana, M.A. Dissertation, Institute of Education, University of London.

DUNCAN, Wendy A. (1988)

School Drop-outs in Botswana: Gender Differences at Secondary Level, Institute of International Education, University of Stockholm.

DUNCAN, Wendy A. (1989)

Engendering School Learning, Science, Attitudes and Achievement among Girls and Boys in Botswana, Studies in Comparative and International Education, 16, University of Stockholm.

FULLER, Bruce (et al.) (1994)

'When Girls Learn more than Boys: The Influence of Time in School and Pedagogy in Botswana' in Comparative Education Review, 38 (3), 347-76.

HIGGINS, K.M. (1981)

Women Farmers and their Training: An Evaluation of a Programme of Non-formal Education Provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Botswana.

MAROPE, P. T. M. & NJABILI, A.F. (1993)

Gender Bias in Educational Materials: Proceedings of a Workshop, University of Botswana, Gaborone.


Girls and Women in Science: Science and Technology Roadshow, Gaborone.

NYATI-RAMAHOBO, Lydia (1992)

The Girl Child in Botswana: Educational Constraints and Prospects, UNICEF, Gaborone.

TSAYANG, G.T. (1989)

Gender and Education: Proceedings of a Workshop, University of Botswana, Gaborone.

Burkina Faso


GIANOTTEN, Vera (et al.) (1994)

Assessing the Gender Impact of Development Projects: Case Studies from Bolivia, Burkina Faso and India, Intermediate Technology, London.

HADDAD, L. & REARDON, T. (1993)

'Gender Bias in the Allocation of Resources Within Households in Burkina Faso - A Disaggregated Outlay Equivalent Analysis' in Journal of Development Studies, 29 (2), 260-276.


Quelques Aspects de la Fécondité des Femmes Voltaïques, République de Haute- Volta, Ministère du Plan et de la Coopération, Direction de la Recherche Démographique, Ouagadougou, INSD.

UNICEF (1994)

Analyse de la Situation des Femmes et des Enfants au Burkina Faso, UNICEF.

Gender and Education

RAM, R. & SINGH, R. D.(1988)

'Farm Households in Rural Burkina Faso-Some Evidence on Allocative and Direct Return to Schooling and Male -Female Productivity Differentials' in World Development, 16 (3), 419-424.

SOME, T.J.B. (1994)

'Sociocultural Aspects of School Attendance by girls at the Primary Level in Burkina Faso' in Canadian Journal of African Studies, 28 (2), 276-289.



AZEVEDO, Mario J. & PRATER, Gwendolyn Spencer (1986)

'The Changing Status of Women in Cameroon: An Overview' in Western Journal of Black Studies, 10 (4), 195-204.

BRYSON, Judy C. (1979)

Women and Economic Development in Cameroon, Agency for International Development, Washington D. C.

KOLOKO, Marie-Yvette (1990)

La Décennie des Nations Unies Pour la Femme et la Condition de la Femme Camerounaise: Aspects Politique, Économique et Sociale, Thèse de Doctorat de 3e Cycle en Relations Internationales, Université de Yaoundé.

KOSACK, G. (1995)

Christianization - A Step towards Emancipation: The Significance of Religion for Mafa Women (Northern Cameroon)' in Anthropos, 90 (1-3), 206-217.

MOPE SIMO, J.A. (1991)

Gender, Agro-Pastoral Production and Class formation in Bamunka, North- Western Cameroon, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.

NDONGKO, Theresa (1976)

'Tradition and the Role of Women in Africa' in Présence Africaine, 99-100,143-154.

NGWAFOR, E. (1991)

'Cameroon - Property Rights for Women- A Bold Step in the Wrong Direction' in Journal of Family Law, 29 (2), 297-302.

OFUNC (1982)

Intégration de la Femme Camerounaise Dans le Processus de Développement Économique, OFUNC, Yaoundé.

SANTEN, Jose C. M. V. (1993)

They Leave their Jars Behind, the Conversion of Mafa Women to Islam (Northern Cameroon), Centrum Voor en Autonomie, Leiden.

STERNER, J. & DAVID, N. (1991)

'Gender and Caste in the Mandara Highlands - Northeastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon' in Ethnology, 30 (4), 355-369.

Gender and Education

AMIN, Martin E. (1994)

'Gender as a Discriminating Factor in the Evaluation of Teaching' in Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 19 (2), 135-43- (This study was carried out in the University of Yaoundé, Cameroon).

CAMMISH N. & BROCK, C. (1994)

'State, Status and Status Quo: Factors Affecting the Education of Girls in Cameroon' in International Journal of Educational Development, 14 (3), 233-240.

OWONO, Rigobert Mbala (1986)

L'école Coloniale au Cameroun - Approche Historico-Sociologique, Imprimerie Nationale, Yaoundé, 64-66, 85-88.

OWONO, Rigobert Mbala (1990)

Éducation Traditionnelle et Développement Endogène en Afrique Centrale, Éditions CEPER, Yaoundé, Chapters 2&3.


'Women and Science Education in Cameroon: Some Reflections' in Interchange, 24 (1-2), 131-158.



CLOUTIER, Luce & SY, Achta Djibrinne (1993)

N'djamenoises du Secteur Informel, CEFOD, N'djamena.

SY, Achta Djibrinne & CARLIER, Marielle, 2nd Edition, (1992)

Fonds de Documentation sur les Femmes au Tchad, Répertoire, N'Djamena, CEFOD.



JACOBSON, Anita (1977)

Försörjerskan Kvinna i Kongo, (av), Uppsala, Nordiska, Afrikainstitute.

NGOLE, J.P. (1986)

'Social Relations and Group Identity among Women Fish Sellers in the Congo' in Women's Studies International, 9 (3), 287-293.



SILKIN, T. (1983)

'Women in Struggle - Eritrea' in Third World Quarterly, 5 (4), 909-913.

SILKIN, T. (1989)

'Women Can Only be Free When the Power of Kin Groups is Smashed- New Marriage Laws and Social Change in the Liberated Zones of Eritrea' in International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 17(2), 147-163.

WILSON, Amrit (1991)

The Challenge Road, Women and the Eritrean Revolution, Earthscan, London.



BJEREN, Gunilla (1986)

Migration to Shashemene: Ethnicity, Gender and Occupation in Urban Ethiopia, Uppsala, Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.

DIRASSE, Laketch (1992)

Commoditization of Female Sexuality: Prostitution and Socio-economic Relations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, AMS Publishers.

HAMER, J. & HAMER, I. (1994)

'The Impact of Cash Economy on Complementary Gender Relations among the Sadama of Ethiopia' in Anthropological Quarterly, 67 (4), 187-202.

MOUSSA, Helena (1993)

Storm and Sanctuary, the Journey of Ethiopian and Eritrean Women Refugees, Ont. Artemis Enterprises, Dundas.

PANKHURST, Helen (1992)

Gender, Development and Identity, An Ethiopian Study, Zed Books, London.

UN Children's Fund (1980)

Children and Women in Ethiopia: A Situation Analysis, UNICEF.

Gender and Education

ABRAHA, Seged (1991)

'What Factors Shape Girls' School Performance? Evidence from Ethiopia' in International Journal of Education, 11 (2), 107-118.

NEGUSSIE, Birgit (1988)

'Culture, Gender and Education in Rural Development with Special Emphasis on Ethiopia' (Conference Paper, June 16-18, 1988) Nordic Association, Oslo, Norway.



WAGNER, Ulla (1982)

Catching the Tourist, Women Handicraft Traders in the Gambia, Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology, 10, University of Stockholm, Stockholm.

CARNEY, J.A. (1992)

'Peasant Women and Economic Transformation in the Gambia' in Development and Change, 23 (2), 67-90.

UNICEF (1993)

The children and Women of the Gambia: An Analysis of their Situation, UNICEF, Banjul, The Republic of Gambia.

Gender and Education

KANE, E. and O'REILLY de BRUM, M. (1993)

Bitter seeds: girls' participation in primary education in the Gambia, World Bank, Washington, D.C.



BRYDON, L. (1987)

'Women in the Family- Cultural Change in Avatime, Ghana 1900-1980' in Development and Change, 18 (2), 251-269.

BUKH, Jette (1979)

The Village Woman in Ghana, Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, Uppsala.

CLARK, K, Gracia (1994)

Onions are My Husband: Survival and Accumulation by West Africa Market Women, Chicago University Press, Chicago.

EWUSI, Kodwo (1987)

Urbanization, Modernization and Employment of Women in Ghana, Adwinsa Publications, Ghana.

HADDAD, L. (1991)

'Gender and Poverty in Ghana- A Descriptive Analysis of Selected Outcomes and Processes' in IDS Bulletin-Institute of Development Studies, 22 (1), 5-16.


'Women's Role in Maintaining Households- Family Welfare and Sexual Inequality in Ghana' in Population Studies, 47 (1), 115-131.

MICKELWAIT, Donald R. (et al.) (1976)

Women in Rural Development: A Survey of the roles of Women in Ghana, Lesotho, Kenya, Nigeria, Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru, Westview Press, Boulder Colo.

MIKELL, G. (1984)

'Filiation, Economic Crisis and the Status of Women in Rural Ghana' in Canadian Journal of African Studies, 18 (1), 195-218.

OWARE KNUDSEN, Christiana (1994)

The Falling Dawadawa Tree, Female Circumcision in Developing Ghana, Intervention Press, Højberg.

PELLOW, D. (1987)

'Solidarity among Muslim women in Accra, Ghana' in Anthropos, 82 (4-6), 489-506.

SCHANDORF, Elizabeth Ardayfio & AKOTO, Kate Kwafa (eds.)(1990)

Women in Ghana: An Annotated Bibliography, Woeli Publishing Services, Ghana.

STEEL, W.F.(1981)

'Female and Small Scale Employment Under Modernization in Ghana' in Economic Development and Cultural Change, 30 (1), 153-167.

ROBERTSON, Claire C., (1984)

Sharing the Same Bowl, a Socio-economic History of Women and Class in Accra, Ghana, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

UNICEF, (1990)

Children and Women of Ghana: A Situation Analysis, Republic of Ghana and United Nations Children's Fund, Accra.

Gender and Education

KAMARA, Siapha & DENKABE, Aloysius (1993)

Handbook on Participatory Approach to Training Vol. 2: Gender in Development, Freedom Publications, Ghana.

KANE, Eileen (1991)

Caught Between Two Stools: Women in Vocational Education and Training in Ghana, Discussion Paper, ILO, Geneva.

PARKER JENKINS, Marie & GRIFFITHS, Morwenna (1994)

'Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas in International Research: School Attendance and Gender in Ghana' in Oxford Review of Education, 20 (4), 441-459.

OPPONG, Christine (1987)

Seven Roles of Women: Impact of Education, Migration and Employment on Ghanaian Mothers, ILO, Geneva.

PEART, Edwina (1995)

The Planning and Implementation of the Functional Literacy Programme in Ghana: With Reference to Its Capacity to Address Gender Inequality in Education, M.A. Dissertation, Institute of Education, University of London.

ROBERTSON, Claire C. (1984)

'Formal or Non- Formal Education? Entrepreneurial Women in Ghana' in Comparative Education Review, 28 (4), 639-58.


Gender and Education

ANDERSON-LEVITT, K.(et al) (1994)

Inside classrooms in Guinea: girls' experiences, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Guinea Bissau


URDANGA, Stephanie (1979)

Fighting Two Colonialisms, Women in Guinea-Bissau, Monthly Review Press, New York.

Ivory Coast


GOTTLIEB, A. (1986)

'Cousin Marriage, Birth Order and Gender- Alliance Models among the Being of Ivory Coast' in Man, 21 (4), 697-722.

KOUADIO, Akissi (1983)

Un Impossible Amour, Une Ivoirienne Raconte, INADES, Abidjan.

Gender and Education

APPLETON, Simon (et al.) (1990)

'Gender, Education and Employment in Cote d'Ivoire, Social Dimensions Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa', Working Paper 8, Policy Analysis, World Bank, Washington D.C.

GRISAY, A. (1984)

'Analysis of Unequal Gender Related Results in Students in Primary Schools in the Ivory Coast' in International Review of Education, 30 (1), 25-39.

VIJVERBERG, Wim P.M. (1993)

'Educational Investments and Returns for Women and Men in Cote d'Ivoire' in Journal of Human Resources, 28 (4), 933-74.



AHLBERG, Beth Maina (1988)

Women, Sexuality and the Changing Social Order, the Impact of Government Policies on Reproductive Behaviour in Kenya, Gordon and Breach, Philadelphia.

BROWN, Katrina (1990)

Women's Farming Groups in a Semi- Arid Region of Kenya: A Case Study of Tharaka Division, Meru, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.

BÜLLOW, Dorthe Von & SØRENSEN, Anne (1988)

Gender Dynamics in Contract Farming, Women's Role in Smallholder Tea Production in Kericho District, Kenya, Centre for Development Research, Copenhagen.

CUBBINS, Lisa A.(1991)

'Women, Men and the Division of Power: A Study of Gender Stratification in Kenya' in Social Forces, 69 (4), 1063-83.

DAVISON, Jean (1989)

Voices from Mutira, Lives of the Rural Gikuyu Women, Reinner, Boulder.

DOW, Thomas E & WERNER, Linda H. (1981)

A Note on Modern, Transitional and Traditional Demographic and Contraception Patterns among Kenyan Women 1977-1978, Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi.

FATTON, Cynthia Hoehler (1996)

Women of Fire and Spirit: Faith, History and Gender in Roho Religion in Western Kenya, Oxford University Press.

FRANCIS, E. (1995)

'Migration and Changing divisions of Labour - Gender Relations and Economic Change in Koguta, Western Kenya' in Africa, 65 (2), 197-216.

FRIEDMAN, A. & TODD, J. (1994)

'Kenyan Women Tell a Story- Interpersonal Power of Women in 3 subcultures in Kenya' in Sex Roles, 31 (9-10), 533-546.

FUGLESANG, Minou (1994)

Veils and Videos, Female Youth Culture on the Kenyan Coast, Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology, 32, Stockholm.

GORDON, A. (1995)

'Gender, Ethnicity and Class in Kenya- Burying Otieno Revisited' in Signs, 20 (2), 883-912.

HAKANSSON, Thomas (1988)

Bridewealth, Women and Land: Social Change among the Gusii of Kenya, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

HAKANSSON, N. T. (1994)

'The Detachability of Women - Gender and Kinship in Processes of Socio-economic Change among the Gusii of Kenya' in American Ethnologist, 21 (3), 516-538.

KARANI, F. A. (et al.) (1987)

'The Situation and Roles of Women in Kenya- An Overview in Journal of Negro Education, 56 (3), 422-470.

KITEME, K. (1992)

The Socio-economic Impact of the African Market Women Trade in Rural Kenya' in Journal of Black Studies, 23 (1), 135-151.

LEVINE, Sarah (1979)

Mothers and Wives, Gusii Women of East Africa, University of Chicago, Chicago.

LIKIMANI, Muthoni (1985)

Passbook Number F47927, Women and Mau-Mau in Kenya, Macmillan Publishers, Basingstoke.


'Gender and Land Rights in Murang'a District, Kenya' in Journal of Peasant Studies, 17 (4), 609-643.


'A Farm is Like a Child Who Cannot be Left Unguarded -Gender, Land and Labour in Central Province, Kenya' in IDS Bulletin - Institute of Development Studies, 26 (1), 17-23.

MICKELWAIT, Donald R. (et al.) (1976)

Women in Rural Development: A Survey of the Roles of Women in Ghana, Lesotho, Kenya, Nigeria, Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru, Westview Press, Boulder Colo.

MIDAMBA, Bessie House (1990)

Class Development and Gender Inequality in Kenya, 1963-90, E. Mellen, Lewiston, Canada.

MIRZA, Sarah M. & STROBEL, Margaret (eds.) (1989)

Three Swahili Women: Life Histories from Mombasa, Kenya, Indiana University Press.

MOORE, Henrietta L. (1985)

Space, Text and Gender: Anthropological Study of Marakwet of Kenya, Cambridge University Press.

NJAU, Rebeka & MULAKI, Gideon (1992)

Kenyan Women Heroes and the Mystical Power, Risk Publications, Nairobi.

NZOMO, M. (1993)

'The Gender Dimension in Democratization in Kenya- some International Linkages' in Alternatives- Social Transformation and Humane Governance, 18 (1), 61-73.

OBOLER, Regina Smith (1985)

Women, Power and Economic Change, the Nandi of Kenya, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

PALA, Achola (et al.) (eds.) (1983)

The Participation of Women in Kenyan Society, Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi.

PRESLEY, Cora Ann (1992)

Kikuyu Women, the 'Mau-Mau' Rebellion and Social Change in Kenya, Westview Press, Oxford.

ROMERO, P.W. (1987)

'Possible sources of the Origin of Gold as an Economic and Social Vehicle for Women in Lamu (Kenya)' in Africa, 57 (3), 364-376.

SLAYTER, Barbara P. Thomas & ROCHELEAU, Dianne (1995)

Gender, Environment and Development in Kenya: A Grassroots Perspective, Rienner.

STAMP, P. (1991)

'Burying Otieno - The Politics of Gender and Ethnicity in Kenya' in Signs, 16 (4), 808-845.

STROBEL, Margaret (1979)

Muslim Women in Mombasa, 1890-1975, Yale University Press, New Haven.


'Politics, Class and Gender in African Resource Management- The Case of Rural Kenya' in Economic Development and Cultural Change, 40 (4), 809-828.


Kenya: The Role of Women in Economic Development, World Bank, Washington D.C.

Gender and Education

CHEYO, Evelyn M. (1993)

Girls' Access, Performance and Achievement in Secondary Education: A Comparative Study of Tanzania, Kenya and Botswana, M.A. Dissertation, Institute of Education, University of London.

DAVISON, J. (1993)

'School Attainment and Gender: Attitudes of Kenyan and Malawian Parents Towards Educating Girls' in International Journal of Educational Development, 13 (4), 331-338.

ESHIWANI, G. S. (1985)

The Education of Women in Kenya, 1975-1984, Bureau of Educational Research, Kenyatta University, Nairobi.

HUGHES, Rees & MWIRIA, Kilemi (1989)

'Kenyan Women, Higher Education and the Labour Market' in Comparative Education, 25 (2), 179-95.

MWIRIA, Kilemi (1993)

'Kenyan Women Adult Literacy Learners: Why their Motivation is Difficult to Sustain' in International Review of Education, 39 (3), 183-92.

TSUMA, Orren G. K. (1989)

'A Study of Career Preferences of Primary School Girls in Kenya' in Kenya Journal of Education, 4 (2), 126-52.



BAYLIES, C. & WRIGHT, C. (1993)

'Female Labour in the Clothing and Textile Industry of Lesotho' in African Affairs, 92 (369), 577-591.

GORDON, E.(1981)

'An Analysis of the Impact of Labour Migration on the Lives of Women in Lesotho' in Journal of Development Studies, 17 (3), 59-76.

GORDON, E.B.(1994)

'The Plight of Women in Lesotho - Reconsideration with the Decline of Apartheid, in Journal of Black Studies, 24 (4), 435-446.

HARRIS, Betty J.(1990)

'Ethnicity and Gender in the Global Periphery: A Comparison of Basotho and Navajo Women' in American -Indian Culture and Research Journal, 14 (4), 15-38.

MALAHLEHA, Gwen (1984)

Contradictions and Ironies, Women of Lesotho, Change International Reports, London.

MICKELWAIT, Donald R. (et al.) (1976)

Women in rural Development: A Survey of the roles of Women in Ghana, Lesotho, Kenya, Nigeria, Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru, Westview Press, Boulder Colo.

MOTEBANG, Maria Seithati (1992)

Women and Development Planning in Lesotho, D. Phil. Thesis, University of York, United Kingdom.

SEEISO, Seitebatso (1986)

Legal Constraints on Women in Development in Lesotho, Institute of Labour Studies, National University of Lesotho, Lesotho.

WILKINSON, R, C.(1983)

'Migration in Lesotho- Some Comparative Aspects with Particular Reference to the Role of Women' in Geography, 68 (300), 208-224.

Gender and Education

ARDAKANI, F. (1991)

Education, Women and Development with Special Reference to Lesotho and Zambia, University of Alberta, Canada.

MAKARA, Matora T. M. (1982)

Education, Women and Management Opportunities: A Lesotho Case Study, M. Ed. Thesis, University of Hull, United Kingdom.



HENRIES, A. Doris Banks (1973)

Women and Girls in Higher Education in Liberia, Bedford, New York.

JACOBS, Sylvia M. (1986)

'Say Africa When You Pray: The Activities of Early Black Baptist Women Missionaries Among Liberian Women and Children' in Sage, 3 (2), 16-21.

LACEY, L. & SINAI, I. (1996)

'Do Female Headed Households have Different Shelter Needs than Men- The Case of Monrovia, Liberia' in Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 27 (1), 89-108.

MORAN, M. H. (1988)

'Women and Civilisation - The Intersection of Gender and Prestige in Southeastern Liberia' in Canadian Journal of African Studies, 22 (3), 491-501.

MORAN, Mary H. (1990)

Civilised Women: Gender and Prestige in Southern Liberia, Cornell University Press.




Femmes Malgaches et Développement: Pour une Société Plus Viable, Cabinet Ramaholimihaso, Antananarivo.

HUNTINGTON, Richard (1987)

Gender and Social Structure in Madagascar: African Systems of Thought, Indiana University Press.

JAROSZ, L. (1991)

'Women as Rice Sharecroppers in Madagascar' in Society and Natural Resources, 4 (1), 53-63.


Etre Femme et Mère à Madagascar (Tañata d'Infanadiana), L'Harmattan, Paris.



DAVISON, J. (1993)

Tenacious Women - Clinging to Banja Household Production in the Face of Changing Gender Relations in Malawi' in Journal of Southern African Studies, 19 (3), 405-421.

KALIPENI, E. & ZULU, E.M. (1993)

'Gender Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Modem and Traditional Methods of Child Spacing in Malawi' in Population Research and Policy Review, 12 (2), 103-121.


'Managing Equity and Gender in an Agricultural Program in Malawi' in Public Administration and Development, 15 (1), 21-40.

SPRING, Anita (1986)

Agricultural Development in Malawi: Project for Women in Development, Westview Press.

SPRING, Anita (1995)

Agricultural Development and Gender Issues in Malawi, University Press of America, London.

VAUGHAN, Megan (1987)

Story of African Famine: Gender and Famine in Twentieth Century Malawi, Cambridge University Press.

WILSON, Monica (1977)

For Men and Elders, Change in the Relations of Generations and of Men and Women among the Nyakyusa People, 1875-1971, International African Institute, London.

Gender and Education

DAVISON, Jean & KANYUKA, Martin (1992)

'Girls' Participation in Basic Education in Southern Malawi' in Comparative Education Review, 36 (4), 446-466.

DAVISON, J. (1993)

'School Attainment and Gender: Attitudes of Kenyan and Malawian Parents Towards Educating Girls' in International Journal of Educational Development, 13 (4), 331-338.

KAPASKA, A (1992)

Malawi: determinants of girls' participation and persistence in school, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

LAMBA, Isaac C.(1982)

'Women's Education in Malawi, 1875-1952' in Journal of Educational Administration History, 14 (1), 46-54.

SWAINSON, Nicola (1995)

Redressing Gender Inequalities in Education: A Review of Constraints and Priorities in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, (Commissioned by the British Development Division in Central Africa of the ODA).



BRETT-SMITH, Sarah C. (1994)

The Making of the Bamana Sculpture, Creativity and Gender, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


'Gender Differentiation among Market Traders in Mali' in Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 78 (3), 214-221.

DIARRA, Abdramane (1991)

Politsche Sozialisation und Rolle der Frau in Mali, Rader, Aachen.

RONDEAU, Chantal (1995)

Les Paysans du Mali, Espaces de Liberté et Changements, Rarthala, Paris.

TOULMIN, Camilla (1992)

Cattle, Women and Wells, Managing Household Survival in the Sahel, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

TURRITTIN, J. (1988)

'Men, Women and Market Trade in Rural Mali, West Africa' in Canadian Journal of African Studies, 22 (3), 583-604.

Gender and Education

SOUMARE, A.M. (1994)

Factors that affect girls' access to school and retention in Mali, Academy for Educational Development, Washington D.C.



ABEILLE, Barbara (1979)

A Study of Female Life in Mauritania, Agency for International Development (IDCA) Washington D.C.

SMALE, Melinda (1980)

Women in Mauritania: The Effects of Drought and Migration on their Economic Status and Implications for Development Programs, Agency for International Development (IDCA) Washington D.C.



KRUKS, S. & WISNER, B.(1984)

'The State, the Party and the Female Peasantry in Mozambique' in Journal of Southern African Studies, 11 (1), 106-127.

MANCEAUX, Michele (1975)

Les Femmes du Mozambique, Mercure de France, Paris.

SHELDON, K. (1991)

'Sewing Clothes and Sorting Cashew Nuts - Factories, Families and Women in Beira, Mozambique' in Women's Studies International Forum, 14 (1-2), 27-35.

URDANG, Stephanie (1989)

And They Still Dance, Women, War and the Struggle for Change in Mozambique, Earthscan, London.



ALLISON, Caroline (1985)

Its Like Holding the Key to Your Own Jail, Women in Namibia, World Council of Churches.

HISHONGWA, Ndeutala Selma (1983)

Women in Namibia, the Changing Role of Namibian Women from Traditional Precolonial Times to the Present, OCH BYGD, Stockholm.

LINDEKE, W. A. and WANZALA, W. (1994)

'Regional Elections in Namibia - Deepening Democracy and Gender Inclusion' in Africa Today, 41 (3), 5- 14.


Women and Men in Namibia, Central Statistics Office, National Planning Commission, Windhoek.




'Women and Mass Media in Africa: Case Studies of Sierra Leone, the Niger and Egypt' in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, 15, 198-221.

HOPKINS, J. (et al.) (1994)

'Women's Income and Household Expenditure Patterns -Gender or flow- Evidence from Niger' in American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76 (5), 1219-1225.

Gender and Education

WYND, Shona (1995)

Factors affecting Girls' Access to Schooling in Niger, Final Report to ODA Education Division, Overseas Development Administration, London, (mimeograph).



AKANDE, Jadesola 0. (1979)

Laws and Customs Affecting Women's Status in Nigeria, International Federation of Women Lawyers, Nigeria.

AMADIUME, Ifi (1987)

Male Daughters, Female Husbands, Gender and Sex in an African Society, Zed Books, London.

AWE, Bolanle (ed.) (1992)

Nigerian Women in Historical Perspective, Bookcraft, Nigeria.

AYOANDE, J.A.A. (et al.) (1992)

Women in Politics in Nigeria, Malthouse, Ikeya.

BABA OF KARO (SMITH, Mary F. trans.) (1981)

A Woman of the Muslim Hausa, Yale University Press.

BAPPA, S. (1985)

Women in Nigeria Today, Zed Books, London.

BARBER, Karin (1991)

I Could Speak Until Tomorrow, Oriki Women and the Past in a Yoruba Town, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

BELLONCLE, Guy (1980)

Femmes et Développement en Afrique Sahélienne, l'expérience Nigérienne d'Animation Féminine (1966-1976), Dakar, Nouvelles Editions Africaines, Les Editions Ouvrières, Paris.

CALLAWAY, Barbara (1985)

Women in Nigeria Today, Zed Books, London.

CALLAWAY, Barbara (1987)

Muslim Hausa Women in Nigeria: Tradition and Change, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse.

CALLAWAY, Barbara and CREEVEY, Lucy (1994)

The Heritage of Islam, Women, Religion and Politics in West Africa, Lynne Reinner, London.


Anatomy of Female Power, a Masculinist Dissection of Matriarchy, Pero, Lagos.

CHIZEA, Dora Obi & NJOKU, Juliet (eds.) (1991)

Nigerian Women and the Challenges of Our Time, Malthouse Publishers, Lagos.

COLES, Catherine & MACK, Beverley (1991)

Hausa Women in the Twentieth Century, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

ERINOSHO, Stella Yemisi (ed.) (1994)

Perspectives on Women in Science and Technology, Sam Bookman, Ibadan.

EZEILO, Bernice N. (1983)

'Sex and Rural - Urban Differences in Self Concepts among Nigerian Adolescents' in Journal of Psychology, 114 (1), 57-61.


'Enhancing the Role of Women in Crop Production- A Case Study of Igbo Women in Nigeria' in World Development, 23 (10), 1731-1744.

HOUSE-MIDAMBA, Bessie & EKECHI, Felix K. (eds.) (1995)

African Market Women and Economic Power, The Role of Women in African Economic Development, Greenwood Press, London.

IGOCHE, M. H. G.(1980)

'Integrating Conscientization into a Program for Illiterate Urban Women in Nigeria' in Convergence, 13 (1-2), 110-117.


The State and Women in Nigeria, Jos University Press, Jos.

MBA, Nina Emma (1982)

Nigerian Women, Mobilized Political Activity in Southern Nigeria, 1900-1965, University of California, Berkeley.

MICKELWAIT, Donald R. (et al.) (1976)

Women in Rural Development: A Survey of the Roles of Women in Ghana, Lesotho, Kenya, Nigeria, Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru, Westview Press, Boulder Colo.

OKOJIE, C.E.E. (1984)

Female Migrants in the Urban Labour Market- Benin city, Nigeria' in Canadian Journal of African Studies, 18 (3), 547-562.

OKONJO, Kamene (1976)

The Dual-Sex Political System in Operation: Igbo Women and Community Politics in Midwestern Nigeria, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

OLALEYE, Oruene Taiwo (1985)

Nation Builders, Women of Nigeria, Change International Reports, London.


'Self Esteem as Determined by Gender Differences among Yoruba Adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria- A Research Note' in Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 31 (3), 461-463.

PITTIN, Renee (1984)

'Documentation and Analysis of the Invisible Women: A Nigerian Case Study' in International Labour Review, 123 (4), 473-90.

PORTER, R. E. (1988)

'Perspectives on Trade, Mobility and Gender in a Rural Market System-Borno, Northeast Nigeria' in Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geographie, 79 (2), 82-92.

SIMMONS, Emmy B. (1976)

Economic Research on Women in Rural Development in Northern Nigeria, American Council on Education, Washington D.C.

SPIRO, Heather M. (1981)

The Fifth World: Women's Rural Activities and Time Budgets in Nigeria, Queen Mary College, London.

STERNER, J. & DAVID, N. (1991)

'Gender and Caste in the Mandara Highlands - Northeastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon' in Ethnology, 30 (4), 355-369.

STONE, M. P. (et al.) (1995)

'The Sexual Division of Labour in Kofyar Agriculture' in American Ethnologist, 22 (1), 165-186.

UCHENDU, Patrick Kenechukwu (1993)

The Role of Nigerian Women in Politics: Past and Present, Fourth Dimension Publishing Co., Enugu, Nigeria.

Gender and Education

ADEJUMOBI, S. A.(1976)

'An Investigation into the Subject Preference of Students in Western State of Nigerian Grammar Schools with Stress and Differentiated Interests between Boys and Girls' in West African Journal of Education, 20 (2), 257-266.

AKANDE, Bolanle E. (1987)

'Rural - Urban Comparison of Female Educational Aspirations in South Western Nigeria' in Comparative Education, 23 (1), 75-83.

AZINGE, Daphne Fae (1971)

The Education of Women and Girls in Northern Nigeria: A Survey, M. Ed Thesis, University of Hull, United Kingdom.

BIRAIMAH, Karen L. (1987)

'Class, Gender and Life Chances: A Nigerian University Case Study' in Comparative Education Review, 31 (4), 570-82.

BIRAIMAH, Karen (1994)

'Class, Gender and Societal Inequalities: A Study of Nigerian and Thai Undergraduate Students' in Higher Education, 27 (1), 41-58.

CSAPO, Marg (1981)

'Religious, Social and Economic Factors Hindering the Education of Girls in Northern Nigeria' in Comparative Education, 17 (3), 311-319.

ETIM, James S. (1988)

'Sex Role Portrayal in 15 YA Books Used in Nigerian Secondary Schools' in Journal of Reading, 31 (5), 452-57.

GLAZER, Daphne (1977)

'Problems of the Education of Girls in Nigeria' in Aspects of Education, 19, 33-42.

JEGEDE, Joseph 0. (1994)

'Influence of Motivation and Gender on Secondary Students' Academic Performance in Nigeria' in Journal of Social Psychology, 134 (5), 695-97.

LEE, Valerie E. & LOCKHEED, Marlaine E. (1990)

The Effects of Single Sex - Schooling on Achievement and Attitudes in Nigeria' in Comparative Education Review, 34 (2), 209-31.

MASHA, G.S. (1979)

Occupation Preferences, Cognitive and Affective Factors in Female Students in Nigeria: A Comparative Study, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cardiff, Wales.

NILES, F. Sushila (1989)

'Parental Attitudes Toward Female Education in Northern Nigeria' in Journal of Social Psychology, 129 (1), 13-20.

NWAGWU, Cordelia (1994)

'Women in Nigeria's Teaching Profession: The Challenges Ahead' in Vocational Aspects of Education, 46 (2), 167-180.

OKOYE, M. (1986)

Secondary Education Opportunities of Girls in Anambra State in Nigeria, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol, United Kingdom.

OSAKUE, Grace (et al.) (eds.) (1992)

Women and Education, Proceedings of the Third Annual Women in Nigeria Conference, Women in Nigeria, Zaria, Nigeria.

UCHENDU, Patrick Kenechukwu (1995)

Education and Changing Economic Role of Nigerian Women, Fourth Dimension Publishing Co., Nigeria.




'Loose Women, Virtuous Women and Timid Virgins -Gender and the Control of Resources in Rwanda' in Canadian Journal of African Studies, 25 (3), 378-395.


'Constraints to Agricultural Development in Africa- A Survey of Female Farmers in the Ruhengeri Prefecture of Rwanda' in Studies in Comparative International Development, 23 (3), 78-98.



CREEVEY, L.E. (1991)

'The Impact of Islam on Women in Senegal' in Journal of Developing Areas, 25 (3), 347-368.

FASSIN, D. (1987)

'Village Rituals, Urban Rituals - social Reproduction of Joola Women of Senegal' in Homme, 27 (4), 54-75.

LAGOUTTE, C. (1988)

'Female Artisans of the Senegal River Region' in Canadian Journal of African Studies, 22 (3), 448-471.

LINARES, O.F.(1985)

'Cash Crops and Gender constructs- The Joola of Senegal' in Ethnology, 24 (2), 83-93.

MACKINTOSH, Maureen (1989)

Gender, Class and Rural Transition: Agribusiness and the Food Crisis in Senegal, Zed Books, London.

Gender and Education

FOUGEYROLLAS, Pierre (1967)

Television and the Social Education of Women, A First Report on the Unesco-Senegal Pilot Study at Dakar, UNESCO, Paris.

RISS, Marie - Denise (1989)

Femmes Africaines en Milieu Rural, les Sénégalaises du Sine Saloum, L'Harmattan, Paris.

SOW, Fatou (1990)

La Décennie des Nations Unies Pour la Femme (1975-1985) au Sénégal, Bilan et Perspectives, Centre Djoliba, Bamako.

Sierra Leone



'Women and Mass Media in Africa: Case Studies of Sierra Leone, the Niger and Egypt' in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development, 15, 198-221.


'Agricultural Development in Sierra Leone - Implications for Rural Women in the Aftermath of the Women's Decade' in Africa Today, 37 (1), 19-35.

DAVIES, Clarice (et al.) (eds.) (1992)

Women of Sierra Leone, Traditional Voices, Women in Traditional Vocations: Talking with Mafila Thoronka, Mammy Fatu Tejan, Kamuyu Women, Bondo Elders of Port Loko, Isatu Cole and Boi Nancy Koroma, Partners in Adult Education Women's Commission, Sierra Leone.


Women's Employment Patterns, Discrimination and Promotion of Equality in Africa: The Case of Sierra Leone, Jobs and Skills Programme for Africa, Addis Ababa.

LEACH, Mellisa (1994)

Rainforest Relations: Gender and Resource Use among the Mende of Gola, Sierra Leone, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

MAY-PARKER, Judith (1986)

Women's Employment Patterns, Discrimination and Promotion of Equality in Africa- The Case of Sierra Leone, ILO., Addis Ababa.

SPENCER, Dunstan S. C. (1976)

African Women in Agricultural Development, A Case Study of Sierra Leone, American Council on Education, Washington D.C.

Gender and Education

AMARA, J. M. (1987)

'Indigenous Technology of Sierra Leone and Science Education of Girls' in International Journal of Science Education, 9 (3), 317-324.

CANLKER, Gifty Shirley Yema (1989)

Training Young Women the Sherbro Way in the Bush School: An Education in Traditional Life (Research Studies by Adult Education Students 1988-1989) DVV, 43.


Final Report on Access to School -Primary and Secondary Data, 1977-78, Government of Sierra Leone/IDA Project, Credit 573/SL.

KETKAR, Suhas L. (1978)

'Female Education and Fertility: Some Evidence from Sierra Leone' in Journal of Developing Areas, 13, 23-33.

MAY-PARKER, J.(1977)

'A Study of Attitudes and Home Background Factors Associated with Wastage among Secondary School Girls in Sierra Leone' Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.

MAY-PARKER, Judith (n.d.)

Out of School Programs for Women in Sierra Leone, Freetown.

MAY-PARKER, Judith (1987)

Counselling to Prevent Pregnancy among School Girls, Report on a Project by Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone, Freetown (Mimeograph).

ROUSSEAU, I. F. (1975)

'African Women: Identity Crisis? Some Observations on Education and the Changing Role of Women in Sierra Leone and Zaire' in ROHRICH-LEAVITT, R. (ed.) Women Cross- Culturally: Challenge and Change, Mouton Publishers, Hague.


Education, Training and Employment Opportunities for Women in Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, Freetown.

SINCLAIR, J.S.(1976)

'Education and the Changing Social Structure in Sierra Leone, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.



AMAN (1994)

The Story of a Somali Girl (as Told to Virginia Lee Barnes and Janice Boddy), Bloomsbury, London.

GALLO, P.G. & VIVIANI, F. (1988)

'Female Circumcision in Somalia' in Mankind Quarterly, 29 (1-2), 165-180.

South Africa



'Gender, Entrepreneurship and Socioeconomic Reparation in South Africa' in Review of Black Political Economy, 22 (2), 152-165.

ALBERT, Alexa A. & PORTER, Judith R. (1986)

'Children's Gender Role Stereotypes - A Comparison of the United States and South Africa' in Journal of Crosscultural Psychology, 17 (1), 45-65.

BERGER, Iris (1992)

Threads of Solidarity, Women in South African Industry, 1900-1980, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

COCK, J. (1987)

'Trapped Workers - Constraints and Contradictions Experienced by Black Women in contemporary South Africa' in Women's Studies International Forum, 10 (2), 133-140.

KADALIE, R. (1995)

'The Constitutional Equality - The Implications for Women in South Africa' in Social Politics, 2 (2), 208-224.

KAGANAS, F. & MURRAY, C. (1994)

The Contest Between Culture and Gender Equality under South Africa Interim constitution' in Journal of Law and Society, 21 (4), 409-433.

LAWSON, Lesley (1986)

Working Women in South Africa, Pluto Press.

MAGUBANE, Peter (1993)

Women of South Africa: Their Fight for Freedom, Little Brown, Boston.

MAKAN, A. (1995)

'Power for Women and Men- Towards a Gendered Approach to Domestic Energy-Policy and Planning in South Africa' in Third World Planning Review, 17 (2), 183-198.

MALVEAUX, J. (1985)

'You have Struck a Rock - A Note on the Status of Black Women in South Africa' in Review of Black Political Economy, 14 (2-3), 277-284.

MEENA. Ruth (ed.) (1984)

Gender in Southern Africa: Conceptual and Theoretical Issues, SAPES Books, Harare.

MURRAY, Christina (ed.) (1994)

Gender and the New South African Legal Order, Kenwyn Juta.

NOMVETE, Nomatamsanqua (1984)

The Participation of the Female Working Class in Trade Unions and Labour Struggles in South Africa from 1950, Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

SEIDMAN, G. W. (1993)

'No Freedom Without Women- Mobilization and Gender in South Africa' in Signs, 18 (2), 291-320.

WALKER, Cherryl (ed.) (1990)

Women and Gender in Southern Africa to 1945, James Currey, London.

WHITE, Caroline (1993)

Status of South African Women, A Source Book in Tables and Graphs, the Reasons for Change, ANC Women's League Policy Division, Marshalltown.

Gender and Education

GREEN, Lena & FOSTER, Don (1986)

'Classroom Intrinsic Motivation: Effects of Scholastic Level, Teacher Orientation, and Gender' in Journal of Educational Research, 80 (1), 34-39.-(This study was carried out in South Africa)

MACKENZIE, Liz (1993)

'On Our Feet, Taking Steps to Challenge Women's Oppression, A Handbook on Gender and Popular Education Workshops' in Adult Education and Development, 41 (Supplement).

SEBAKWANE, Mahlase & SHIRLEY, M. (1994)

'Women Teachers and Community Control in Lebowa Secondary Schools' in Multicultural Teaching, 12 (3), 31-34.



BERNAL, V. (1994)

'Gender, Culture and Capitalism- Women and the Remaking of the Islamic Tradition in a Sudanese Village' in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 36 (1), 36-67.

CLOUDSLEY, Anne (1981)

The Women of Omdurman, Victims of Circumcision, Craven Hill, London.

CLOUDSLEY, Anne (1984)

Women of Omdurman, Life, Love and the Cult of Virginity, St. Martins Press, New York.

EL DAREER, Asma (1982)

Woman, Why do you Weep? Circumcision and its Consequences, Zed Books, London.

HALE, Sondra (1995)

Gender Politics in Sudan: Islamism, Socialism and the State, Westview Press.

HALL, Marjorie & BAKHITA, Amin Ismail (1981)

Sisters Under the Sun, The Story of Sudanese Women, Longman, London.

ISMAIL, Ellen T.(1982)

Social Environment and Daily Routine of Sudanese women, A Case Study of Urban Middle Class House Wives, Reimer, Berlin.

KAMIER, El-Wathig (et al.) (1985)

The State of Women's Studies in the Sudan, Development Studies and Research Centre, University of Khartoum.

KHALEEFA, O. H. (et al.) (1996)

'Gender and Creativity in an Afro- Arab Islamic Culture-The Case of Sudan' in Journal of Creative Behaviour, 30 (1), 52-60.

MAKKI, Maureen (1990)

Women of the Sudan, Verlag, Bendestorf.

KENYON, Susan (1991)

Five Women of Sennar: Culture and Change in Central Sudan, Clarendon, Oxford.

SHAMI, Seteney (et al.) (1990)

Women in Arab Society, Work Patterns and Gender relations in Egypt, Jordan and Sudan, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gender and Education

GRUENBAUM, E. (1991)

'The Islamic Movement, Development and Health Education - Recent Changes in the Health of Rural Women in Central Sudan' in Social Science and Medicine, 33 (6), 637-645.



HARRIS, Betty (1993)

The Political Economy of the Southern African Periphery, Cottage Industries, Factories and Female Wage Labour in Swaziland Compared, Macmillan Publishers, Basingstoke.

RUSSELL, M. (1986)

'High Status, Low Pay- Anomalies in the Position of Women in Employment in Swaziland' in Journal of Southern African Studies, 12 (2), 293-307.



BULOW, Dorthe Von (et al.) (1995)

Supporting Women's groups in Tanzania through Credit: Is this a Strategy for Empowerment?, Working Paper No. 10, Copenhagen Centre for Development Research.

CAPLAN, P. (1981)

'Development Policies in Tanzania - Some Implications for Women' in Journal of Development Studies, 17 (3), 98-108.

CHERIET, B. (1987)

'Specific Socialism' and Illiteracy amongst Women: A Comparative Study of Algeria and Tanzania, Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Education, London.

CREIGHTON, Colin & OMARI, C.K. (1995)

Gender, Family and Household in Tanzania, Averbury, Aldershot.

CROLL, E. J. (1981)

'Women in Rural Production and Reproduction in the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and Tanzania - Case Studies' in Signs, 7 (2), 375-399.

CROLL, E. J. (1981)

'Women in Rural Production and Reproduction in the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and Tanzania- Socialist Development Experiences' in Signs, 7 (2), 361-374.

LARSSON, Birgitta (1991)

Conversion to Greater Freedom: Women, Church and Social Change in North Western Tanzania under Colonial Rule, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.

MASCARENHAS, Ophelia & MBILINYI, Marjorie (1983)

Women in Tanzania, An Analytical Bibliography, Holmes and Meier, New York.

MBILINYI, Marjorie (1991)

Big Slavery Agribusiness and the Crisis in Women's Employment in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam.

MEGHJI, Z. (1985)

'Women and Cooperatives- Some Realities Affecting Development in Tanzania' in Community Development Journal, 20 (3), 185-188.

MITZLAFF, Ulrike Von (1988)

Maasai Women's Life in a Patriarchal Society: Field Research among the Parakuyo, Tanzania, Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam.


'Women and Cooperatives in Tanzania - Separatism or Integration' in Economic and Political Weekly, 29 (44), ws 86-ws 96.

OOMEN-MYIN, M. A.(1983)

'The Involvement of Rural women in Village Development in Tanzania' in Convergence, 16 (2), 59-69.

SENDER, John & SMITH, Sheila (1990)

Poverty, Class, Gender in Rural Africa, A Tanzanian Case Study, Routledge, London.

SMITH S. & SENDER, J. B. (1990)

'Poverty, Gender and Wage Labour in Rural Tanzania' in Economic and Political Weekly, 25 (24-2), 1334-1342.

SMITH, C. D. & STEVENS, L. (1988)

'Farming and Income Generation in the Female Headed Smallholder Household- The Case of a Haya Village in Tanzania' in Canadian Journal of African Studies, 22 (3),552-566.

SWANTZ, Marja-Liisa (1985)

Women in Development - The Creative Role Denied: The Case of Tanzania, C. Hurst, London.

TRIPP, A. M. (1989)

'Women and the changing Urban Household Economy in Tanzania' in Journal of Modern African Studies, 27 (4),601-623.

Gender and Education

ASAYEHGN, Desta (1979)

The Role of Women in Tanzania: Their Access to Higher Education and Participation in Labour Force, UNESCO, International Institute of Educational Planning, Paris.

CHEYO, Evelyn M. (1993)

Girls' Access, Performance and Achievement in Secondary Education: A Comparative Study of Tanzania, Kenya and Botswana, M.A. Dissertation, Institute of Education, University of London.



COMHAIRE-SYLAIN, Suzanne (1982)

Femmes de Lomé, CEEBA Publications, 77, Bandundu.

Gender and Education

BIRAIMAH, Karen Coffyn (1980)

'The Impact of Western Schools on Girls' Expectations: A Togolese Case' in Comparative Education Review, 24 (2), 196-208.



AHIKIRE, J. (1994)

'Women, Public Politics and Organization - Potentialities of Affirmative Action in Uganda' in Economic and Political Weekly, 29 (44), pp. ws 77 - ws 83.

AKELLO, Grace (1982)

Self Twice Removed, Ugandan Woman, Change International Reports, London.

BROWN, Winifred (1988)

Marriage, Divorce and Inheritance, the Ugandan Council of Women's Movement for Legislative Reform, African Monographs, African Studies Centre, Cambridge.

CASALE, D. M. (1982)

'Women, Power and Change in Lugbara (Uganda) Cosmology- A Reinterpretation' in Anthropos, 77 (3-4), 385-396.

MULEMWA, Jane N. (1993)

'Women's Participation in Science and Technology' in Alberta Science Education Journal, 26 (1), 41-7.

Gender and Education

GATELEY, I. M. (1970)

The Formal Education of African Women and Girls in Uganda: Some Changes Involved in its Acceptance, Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, United Kingdom .



MITCHNIK, David A. (1978)

The Role of Women in Rural Zaire and Upper Volta, Improving Methods of Skill Acquisition, Oxfam, Oxford.

VERHEUST, Thérèse Par (1985)

Portraits de Femmes: Les Intellectuels Zaïroises, Les Cahiers du CEDAF ASDOC Studies, 6, CEDAF, Bruxelles.

Gender and Education

ROUSSEAU, I. F. (1975)

'African Women: Identity Crisis? Some Observations on Education and the Changing Role of Women in Sierra Leone and Zaire' in ROHRICH-LEAVITT, R. (ed.) Women Cross- Culturally: Challenge and Change, Mouton Publishers, Hague.



BANDA, Gabriel (1991)

Adjusting to Adjustment in Zambia: Women's and Young People's Response to a Changing Economy, Oxfam Research Papers, Oxfam.

BARDOUILLE, R. (et al.) (1985)

An Annotated Bibliography of Research on Zambian Women, Zambia Association for Research and Development, Lusaka, Zambia.

CREHAN, Kate A. F. (1987)

'Production, Reproduction and Gender in North-Western Zambia' Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

GEISLER, G. (1992)

'Who is Losing Out- Structural Adjustment, Gender and the Agricultural Sector in Zambia' in Journal of Modern African Studies, 30 (1), 113-139.

GEISLER, G. (1995)

'Troubled Sisterhood: Women and Politics in Southern Africa- Cases of Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana' in African Affairs, 94 (377), 545-578.

HANSEN, K. T. (1980)

'When Sex Becomes a Critical Variable - Married Women and Extra Domestic Work in Lusaka, Zambia' in African Social Research, 30, 831-849.

HANSEN, K.T. (1984)

'Negotiating Sex and Gender in Urban Zambia' in Journal of Southern African Studies, 10 (2), 219-238.

HINFELAAR, Hugo F. (1994)

Bemba-Speaking Women of Zambia in a Century of Religious Change (1892-1992), Studies of Religion in Africa, V. 11, Leiden, Brill.

KELLER, B. & MBEWE, D. C. (1991)

'Policy and Planning for the Empowerment of Zambian Women Farmers' in Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 12 (1), 75-88.

LUNGU, G. F. (1989)

'Women and Representative Bureaucracy in Zambia - The Case of Gender Balancing in the Civil Service and Parastatal Organizations' in Women's Studies International Forum, 12 (2), 175-182.

MOORE, Henrietta L. & VAUGHAN, Megan (1994)

Cutting Down Trees: Gender, Nutrition and Agricultural Change in Northern Province, Zambia, 1890-1990, Heinemann, Portsmouth N. H.

MWALE, Genevieve & BURNARD, Phillip (1992)

Women and AIDS in Rural Africa: Rural Women's Views of AIDS in Zambia, Averbury, Aldershot.

O'REILLY, C. & GORDON, A. (1995)

Survival Strategies of Poor Women in Urban Africa: The Case of Zambia, Natural Resources Institute.

POEWE, Karla O. (1981)

Matrilineal Ideology, Male- Female Dynamics in Luapula, Zambia, Academic Press, London.

SCHUSTER, I. M. Glazer (1979)

New Women of Lusaka, Mayfield Publishing Company, California.

SIBALWA, David (1993)

'Women's Contribution towards National Development in Zambia' in Convergence, 26 (2), 38-46.

ZARD (1989)

Agenda for the Study of Rural Women in Zambia: Zard's Presentation at Forum 85, in International Studies- Notes, 14 (3) 72-76.

Gender and Education

ARDAKANI, F. (1991)

Education, Women and Development with Special Reference to Lesotho and Zambia, University of Alberta, Canada.

MUMBA, Elizabeth (1988)

'Training for Women in Zambia: A Review of Selected Research' in Studies in the Education of Adults, 20 (2), 144-152.

MWANSA, D.M. (1995)

'Perspectives on Literacy, Gender and Change - A Case for Zambia' in British Journal of Sociology of Education, 16 (4), 495-516.

SWAINSON, Nicola (1995)

Redressing gender inequalities in education: a review of constraints and priorities in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, Overseas Development Administration, London.



ADAMS, J.M. (1991)

'Female Wage Labour in Rural Zimbabwe' in World Development, 19 (2-3), 163-177.

ADAMCHAK, Donald J. (1991)

'Elderly Support and Intergenerational Transfer in Zimbabwe: An Analysis by Gender, Marital Status and Place of Residence' in Gerontologist, 31 (4), 505-13.

BARNES, Terri & WIN, Everjoyce (1992)

To Live a Better Life. An Oral History of Women in the City of Harare 1930-70, Baobab, Harare.

BATEZAT, Elinor & MWALO, Margaret (1989)

Women in Zimbabwe, SAPES Trust, Southern Africa Printing & Publishing House, Harare.

BOND-STEWART, Kathy (1987)

Independence is not Only for One Sex, Zimbabwe Publishing House, Harare.

CHEATER, A. (1981)

'Women and their Participation in Agricultural Production -The Case of Medium Scale Freehold in Zimbabwe' in Development and Change, 12 (3), 349-377.


'The Changing Economic role of Women in the Urbanization Process- A Preliminary Report from Zimbabwe' in International Migration Review, 18 (4), 1278-1292.

GEISLER, G. (1995)

'Troubled Sisterhood: Women and Politics in Southern Africa- Case Studies from Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana' in African Affairs, 94 (377), 545-578.

GETECHA, Ciru & CHIPIKA, Jesimen (1995)

Zimbabwe Women's Voices, Women's Resource Centre, Zimbabwe.

JACOBS, S. (1991)

'Land Resettlement and Gender in Zimbabwe - Some Findings' in Journal of Modern African studies, 29 (3), 521-528.

JACOBS, S. (1992)

'Gender and Land Reform- Zimbabwe and Some Comparisons' in International Sociology, 7 (1), 5- 34.

JØRGENSEN, Kirstein (1982)

Women's Programmes in Zimbabwe, K.U.L.U, Copenhagen.

KANJI, N. (1995)

'Gender, Poverty and Economic Adjustment in Harare, Zimbabwe' in Environment and Urbanization, 7 (1), 37-55.

KANJI, N. & JAZDOWSKA. N. (1995)

'Gender, Structural Adjustment and Employment in Urban Zimbabwe' in Third World Planning Review, 17 (2), 133-154.

MACNAMARA, Eve (1989)

Women in Zimbabwe, An Annotated Bibliography, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.

MADE, Patricia & LAGERSTROM, Birgitta (1985)

Zimbabwean Women in Industry, Zimbabwe Publishing House, Harare.

MAY, Joan (1979)

African Women in Urban Employment, Factors Influencing their Employment in Zimbabwe, Mambo Press, Gwelo.

MAY, Joan (1983)

Zimbabwean Women in Colonial and Customary Law, Mambo Press, Gweru.


'Gender Differences in Time and Energy Costs of Distance for Regular Domestic Chores in Rural Zimbabwe- A Case Study in the Chiduku Communal Area' in World Development, 20 (11), 1675-1683.

SEIDMAN, G.W. (1984)

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SCHMIDT, Elizabeth (1992)

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Gender and Education

GORDON, Rosemary (1994)

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SWAINSON, Nicola (1995)

Redressing gender inequalities in education: a review of constraints and priorities in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, Overseas Development Administration, London.

WILSON, David (et al.) (1989)

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