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Sector Wide Approaches to Education - A Strategic Analysis - Education Research Paper No. 32, 1999, 104 p.

Table of Contents


Mike Ratcliffe and Murray Macrae
(Ratcliffe Macrae Associates)

August 1999

Serial No. 32
ISBN: 1 86192 131 4

Department For International Development



This is one of a series of Education Papers issued from time to time by the Education Department of the Department For International Development. Each paper represents a study or piece of commissioned research on some aspect of education and training in developing countries. Most of the studies were undertaken in order to provide informed judgements from which policy decisions could be drawn, but in each case it has become apparent that the material produced would be of interest to a wider audience, particularly those whose work focuses on developing countries.

Each paper is numbered serially, and further copies can be obtained through the DFID's Education Department, 94 Victoria Street, London SW1E 5JL, subject to availability. A full list appears overleaf.

Although these papers are issued by the DFID, the views expressed in them are entirely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the DFID's own policies or views. Any discussion of their content should therefore be addressed to the authors and not to the DFID.

Table of Contents

List of Other DFID Education Papers Available in This Series


Executive Summary

Introduction: Study purpose and process
The impetus for education Sector Wide Approaches
Sector Wide Approaches: Conceptual issues
Funding agencies: Education policies, strategies and approaches
Strengths and weaknesses of sector wide approaches
New Government-funding agency partnerships
Sector Wide Approaches to Education: Lessons learned

1. Introduction: Study Purpose and Process

Study purpose
Study process

2. The Impetus for Education Sector Wide Approaches

Disillusionment with existing approaches
Questions of growth
Changing policy environments
What might make a difference
Planning the sector
Taking a global view
Entry points: When and how to start

3. Sector Wide Approaches: Conceptual Issues

Defining Sector Wide Approaches (SWA)
Different forms of financing instruments
Project aid and SWA
Programme aid and SWA
SWA models
SWA: Other sector comparisons
SWA and the private sector
Enabling broader community development SWA
SWA: Perceived advantages

4. Funding Agencies: Education Policies, Strategies and Approaches

Evolution of DFID policy/strategy
Implications for design/appraisal processes
Broad DFID strategic directions
Overview of current DFID approaches
Bilateral funding agencies: Issues and strategies
European Union initiatives
Bilateral funding agencies that are uncertain about SWA
The lending banks
The UN agencies: Strengthening their role

5. Strengths and Weaknesses of Sector Wide Approaches

The consultation process
Funding agency discussions: Overall findings
Impetus for SWA to education
Using Government systems
SWA: Potential constraints and risks
Raising potential

6. New Government-Funding Agency Partnerships

Transition towards SWA
Statement of intent
Collaborative programmes of work
Memorandum of understanding
Codes of practice
Strengthening field monitoring systems
Technical assistance: Roles and management
Partnership principles

7. Sector Wide Approaches to Education: Lessons Learned

Historical perspectives
Enabling national ownership/leadership
Community consultation
Analysis of policy and strategy requirements
Design and planning structures: Strengths and limitations
Institutional reform and capacity building
SWA and decentralisation
Strengthening SWA finance/budget planning
Strengthening financial management/tracking systems
SWA implementation: Management structures
SWA: Changing organisation/management cultures
Performance monitoring/evaluation system development
Some lessons learned

Annex 1: Education SWA - A Bibliography

Documents not in the public domain
Country List of Programmes/Projects

Annex 2: Education SWA - Study Informants